Multiple Non-Essential Transition Metals Are Accumulated in Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques: Missing Link in Atherosclerosis?
Population studies revealed that metal exposure through food, environment, and smoking was related with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. In this study, we determined complex chemical elements in surgical carotid endarterectomy specimens and carotid tissues from autopsies without atherosclerosis. Atherosclerotic plaques from 41 endarterectomies and normal carotid tissue from 30 autopsies were collected and elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) method. Eleven (26.8%) patients never smoked in carotid endarterectomy group. One patient was brass souvenir worker and one was goldsmith and others did not have direct contact with metals in the carotid endarterectomy group. Na, Cu, Mn, Bi, Co, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Ti, and W levels were not different between two groups. Bi, Co, Mo, Pb, Ti, and W were below the detection limit of ICP-OES in both groups. Concentrations of Mg, K, Ca, P, Fe, B, Zn, Al, As, Cr, Pt, and Hg were significantly higher in carotid endarterectomies than normal carotid tissue samples. Cd and S values were significantly higher in autopsy samples. There is significant multiple non-essential transition metal accumulation in atherosclerotic carotid endarterectomy plaques. The cardiovascular consequences of metal toxicity have not been researched adequately due to large emphasis on the role of cholesterol in atherosclerosis. High level of non-essential transition metal elements in the carotid atherosclerotic plaques may add the missing link of atherogenesis and may necessitate new treatment and prevention strategies in carotid disease if confirmed by further research.
KeywordsAtherosclerosis Endarterectomy Non-essential transition metal Heavy metal
We thank Gamze Karacan and Ufuk Yetik for their valuable efforts in sample transport and conservation.
This study was financed by the authors’ own resources.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
The study was carried out in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and protocol was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of İstanbul Aydin University (2018-15).
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 7.Aalbers TG, Houtman JP, Makkink B (1987) Trace-element concentrations in human autopsy tissue. Clin Chem 33:2057–2064Google Scholar
- 11.WHO/FAO/IAEA. World Health Organization (1996). Switzerland: Geneva. Trace elements in human nutrition and healthGoogle Scholar
- 12.Schrauzer GN (1999) Selen, Neue Entwicklung aus Biologie, Biochemie und Medizin, Johann Ambrosius Barth Verlag, Heidelberg. 3. Auflage, 37, 59Google Scholar
- 13.Versieck J, Cornelis R. (1989) Trace elements in human plasma or serum, CRC, Boca Raton, FL.pp 93Google Scholar
- 15.Luo XM, H J, Wei HJ, Yang SP (1983) Inhibitory effects of molybdenum on esophageal and forestomach carcinogenesis in rats. J Natl Cancer Inst 71:75Google Scholar
- 18.Tchounwou PB, Newsome C, Williams J, Glass K (2008) Copper-induced cytotoxicity and transcriptional activation of stress genes in human liver carcinoma, (HepG(2)) Cells. Met Ions Biol Med 10:285–290Google Scholar
- 19.Chang LW Magos L Suzuki T (1996) Editors. Toxicology of metals. Boca Raton. FL, USA: CRC PressGoogle Scholar
- 21.Rattanachongkiat S, Millward GE, Foulkes ME (2004) Determination of arsenic species in fish, crustacean and sediment samples from Thailand using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). J Environ Monit 6:254–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 23.Jaishankar M, Mathew BB, Shah MS, Gowda KRS (2014) Biosorption of few heavy metal ions using agricultural wastes. J Environ Pollut Hum Health 2(1):1–6Google Scholar
- 25.Lambert M, Leven BA, Green RM (2000) New methods of cleaning up heavy metal in soils and water; environmental science and technology briefs for citizens. Kansas State University, Manhattan, KSGoogle Scholar
- 26.Morais S, Costa FG, Pereira ML (2012) Heavy metals and human health. In: Oosthuizen J, editor. Environmental health – emerging issues and practice. pp. 227–246Google Scholar
- 27.Jomova K, Valko M (2011) Advances in metal-induced oxidative stress and human disease. Toxicology. 10;283(2-3):65-87Google Scholar
- 29.Messner B, Knoflach M, Seubert A, Ritsch A, Pfaller K, Henderson B, Shen YH, Zeller I, Willeit J, Laufer G, Wick G, Kiechl S, Bernhard D (2009) Cadmium is a novel and independent risk factor for early atherosclerosis mechanisms and in vivo relevance arteriosclerosis. Thromb Vasc Biol 29:1392–1398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 32.Scapin MA, Guilhen SN, Cotrim MEB, Pires MF. (2015) Determination of Ca/P molar ratio in hydroxyapatite (HA) by X-ray fluorescence technique. INAC 2015: international nuclear Atlantic conference Brazilian nuclear program state policy for a sustainable world, BrazilGoogle Scholar
- 34.Kaiser C (2012) AHA: dismay greets positive chelation study. MedPage Today. Nov 4; Available at: http://www.medpagetoday.com/MeetingCoverage/AHA/35746. Accessed on June7, 2018
- 38.Knudtson ML, Wyse DG, Galbraith PD, Brant R, Hildebrand K, Paterson D, Richardson D, Burkart C, Burgess E (2002) Program to assess alternative treatment strategies to achieve cardiac health (PATCH) investigators. Chelation therapy for ischemic heart disease: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 287:481–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 40.Bradl H (ed) (2002) Heavy metals in the environment: origin, interaction and remediation volume 6. Academic Press.pp, London, pp 249–262Google Scholar