Smoking Is Positively Associated with Antithyroperoxidase Antibodies and Antithyroglobulin Antibodies in Populations with Mildly Deficient Iodine Intake
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To evaluate the relationship between smoking and both antithyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAb) and antithyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) positivity in subjects from Panshan, Zhangwu, and Huanghua with mildly deficient, more than adequate, and excessive iodine intake, respectively. Smoking-related data were collected by questionnaire, and laboratory measurements of TPOAb, TgAb, and thyrotropin (TSH) were determined at baseline and follow-up. (1) A 1.48-fold increased risk of TPOAb positivity was found in smokers than in non-smokers after adjusting for confounders (age, sex, and areas) (OR[95% CI] = 1.48[1.12–1.95], p = 0.01). (2) Among female subjects, the prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies in smokers was increased than that in non-smokers in Panshan, Zhangwu, and Huanghua (TPOAb): 16.79 vs. 8.89%, 14.14 vs. 11.09%, 19.53 vs. 9.57%; TgAb 15.32 vs. 9.29%, 12.79 vs. 11.94%, 17.19 vs. 10.55%, respectively). The difference was significant in Panshan after adjusting for age. (3) Female long-term smokers (> 20 years) had an increased frequency of thyroid autoantibody positivity than non-smokers after adjusting for confounders (TPOAb OR[95% CI] = 1.60[1.10–2.34]; TgAb OR[95% CI] = 1.31[0.88–1.94]). (4) There was no difference in the incidence of thyroid autoantibodies among non-smokers, new smokers, and long-term smokers at follow-up. (5) TSH was greater in TPOAb-positive subjects than in seronegative smokers (1.56 vs. 1.20 mU/L, p < 0.001) and non-smokers (1.97 vs. 1.58 mU/L, p < 0.001). However, TSH was also greater in non-smokers than in smokers, regardless of whether subjects were positive (1.97 vs. 1.56 mU/L, p = 0.04) or negative (1.58 vs. 1.20 mU/L, p < 0.001) for TPOAb. Long-term smoking could increase the prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies in a population with mildly deficient iodine intake. TSH levels were lesser in smokers than in non-smokers and greater in subjects with thyroid autoantibody positivity than in seronegative subjects. The influence of smoking on TSH levels was independent of thyroid autoantibody levels.
KeywordsSmoking Antithyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAbs) Antithyroglobulin antibodies (TgAbs) Thyroid-stimulating hormone Epidemiology
We thank Fang Dong, Zhanyi Wang, Shaoquan Song, Li He, and Hua Liu for their assistance with the study. We would also like to acknowledge the professional manuscript editing services of American Journal Experts.
This study was funded by grants from the China Medical Board, New York, New York (Grant CMB 98-688) and the National Natural Science Foundation, Beijing, China (Grants 30240013 and 30370680).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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