Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 187, Issue 1, pp 243–257 | Cite as

Influence of Chronic Toxicity, Lipid Metabolism, Learning and Memory Ability, and Related Enzyme in Sprague-Dawley Rats by Long-Term Chromium Malate Supplementation

  • Weiwei Feng
  • Qian Li
  • Wei Wang
  • Yao Chen
  • Weijie Zhang
  • Ting Zhao
  • Guanghua Mao
  • Xiangyang Wu
  • Liuqing YangEmail author


In our previous study, chromium malate is beneficial for type 2 diabetic rats in control glycometabolism and lipid metabolism. The present study was designed to observe the chronic toxicity, lipid metabolism, learning and memory ability, and related enzymes of chromium malate in rats during the year. The results showed that pathological, toxic, feces, and urine of chromium malate (at daily doses of 10.0, 15.0, and 20.0 μg Cr/kg bm) did not change measurably. Chromium malate (at daily doses of 15.0 and 20.0 μg Cr/kg bm) could significantly reduce the levels of total cholesterol (TC), LDL, and triglyceride (TG), and increase the level of HDL in male rats compared to control group and chromium picolinate group. Significant escalating trends of the escape latency and swimming speed (Morris water maze test), and the original platform quadrant stops, residence time, and swimming speed (Space exploration test) in male rats of chromium malate groups were obtained. The SOD, GSH-Px, and TChE activities of chromium malate (at daily doses of 15.0 and 20.0 μg Cr/kg bm) were enhanced significantly in male rats compared with those of the normal control group and chromium picolinate group. Glycometabolism and related enzymes had no significant changes compared to normal control group and chromium picolinate group. These results indicated that long-term chromium malate supplementation did not cause measurable toxicity at daily doses of 10.0, 15.0, and 20.0 μg Cr/kg bm and could improve dyslipidemia and learning and memory deficits.


Chromium malate Chronic toxicity Glycometabolism Lipid metabolism Learning and memory ability 


Funding Information

This work was supported financially by Specialized Research Fund for the Natural Science Foundation of China (31271850), Research Foundation for Advanced Talents of Jiangsu University (15JDG146).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of the Environment and Safety EngineeringJiangsu UniversityZhenjiangChina
  2. 2.Institute of Environmental health and Ecological SecurityJiangsu UniversityZhenjiangChina
  3. 3.School of Food and Biological EngineeringJiangsu UniversityZhenjiangChina
  4. 4.School of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringJiangsu UniversityZhenjiangChina

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