Relationship of Dietary and Serum Zinc with Depression Score in Iranian Adolescent Girls

  • Kayhan Gonoodi
  • Alireza Moslem
  • Mahsa Ahmadnezhad
  • Susan Darroudi
  • Zahra Mazloum
  • Maryam Tayefi
  • Seyed Amir Tabatabaeizadeh
  • Saeid Eslami
  • Mojtaba Shafiee
  • Zahra Khashayarmanesh
  • Hamideh Moalemzadeh Haghighi
  • Gordon A. Ferns
  • Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan
Article
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Abstract

Zinc deficiency, which is common among Iranian populations, is believed to play a crucial role in the onset and progression of mood disorders such as depression in different stages of life. We have therefore investigated the relationship between serum/dietary zinc status and depression scores among adolescent girls living in northeastern Iran. Serum zinc was measured by flame atomic absorption (Varian AA240FS) and the mean zinc intake was assessed using 3-day food record. A validated Persian version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to determine the severity of depressive symptoms for all subjects. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18 software. There was a statistically significant correlation between dietary zinc intake and serum zinc concentration (r = 0.117, p = 0.018). Dietary intake of zinc (7.04 ± 4.28 mg/day) was significantly lower among subjects with mild to severe depression symptoms than those with no or minimal depression symptoms (8.06 ± 3.03 mg/day). Dietary zinc intake was inversely correlated with depression score (r = 0.133, p = 0.008). However, there was no significant difference in serum zinc concentrations among individuals with no or minimal and mild to severe depression symptoms (p = 0.5). Dietary zinc intake, but not serum zinc concentration, was inversely associated with depression symptoms. Therefore, controlled clinical trials are needed to determine the efficacy of zinc supplementation in the treatment of depression disorders.

Keywords

Serum zinc Zinc intake Depression Adolescence 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was support by a grant from Mashhad University of Medical Sciences.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kayhan Gonoodi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Alireza Moslem
    • 2
    • 3
  • Mahsa Ahmadnezhad
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
  • Susan Darroudi
    • 2
    • 4
  • Zahra Mazloum
    • 2
    • 6
  • Maryam Tayefi
    • 2
    • 7
  • Seyed Amir Tabatabaeizadeh
    • 1
    • 2
  • Saeid Eslami
    • 2
    • 8
    • 9
  • Mojtaba Shafiee
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  • Zahra Khashayarmanesh
    • 2
    • 10
  • Hamideh Moalemzadeh Haghighi
    • 2
    • 10
  • Gordon A. Ferns
    • 11
  • Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan
    • 2
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of Nutrition, Faculty of MedicineMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  2. 2.Department of Modern Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of MedicineMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  3. 3.Department of AnesthesiologySabzevar University of Medical SciencesSabzevarIran
  4. 4.Nutrition Research Center, Department of Community NutritionTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  5. 5.Student Research Committee, Faculty of MedicineMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  6. 6.Evidence-Based Care Research Center, Medical Surgical Nursing DepartmentMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  7. 7.Metabolic Syndrome Research Center, Faculty of MedicineMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  8. 8.Pharmaceutical Research Center, School of PharmacyMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  9. 9.Department of Medical InformaticsUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  10. 10.Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of PharmacologyMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  11. 11.Brighton & Sussex Medical School, Division of Medical EducationSussexUK

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