Relationship of Dietary and Serum Zinc with Depression Score in Iranian Adolescent Girls
- 181 Downloads
Zinc deficiency, which is common among Iranian populations, is believed to play a crucial role in the onset and progression of mood disorders such as depression in different stages of life. We have therefore investigated the relationship between serum/dietary zinc status and depression scores among adolescent girls living in northeastern Iran. Serum zinc was measured by flame atomic absorption (Varian AA240FS) and the mean zinc intake was assessed using 3-day food record. A validated Persian version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to determine the severity of depressive symptoms for all subjects. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18 software. There was a statistically significant correlation between dietary zinc intake and serum zinc concentration (r = 0.117, p = 0.018). Dietary intake of zinc (7.04 ± 4.28 mg/day) was significantly lower among subjects with mild to severe depression symptoms than those with no or minimal depression symptoms (8.06 ± 3.03 mg/day). Dietary zinc intake was inversely correlated with depression score (r = 0.133, p = 0.008). However, there was no significant difference in serum zinc concentrations among individuals with no or minimal and mild to severe depression symptoms (p = 0.5). Dietary zinc intake, but not serum zinc concentration, was inversely associated with depression symptoms. Therefore, controlled clinical trials are needed to determine the efficacy of zinc supplementation in the treatment of depression disorders.
KeywordsSerum zinc Zinc intake Depression Adolescence
This study was support by a grant from Mashhad University of Medical Sciences.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 13.Khayyatzadeh SS, Mirmoosavi SJ, Fazeli M, Abasalti Z, Avan A, Javandoost A, Rahmani F, Tayefi M, Hanachi P, Ferns GA (2017) High-dose vitamin D supplementation is associated with an improvement in several cardio-metabolic risk factors in adolescent girls: a nine-week follow-up study. Annals of clinical biochemistryGoogle Scholar
- 22.Ranjbar E, Shams J, Sabetkasaei M, M-Shirazi M, Rashidkhani B, Mostafavi A, Bornak E, Nasrollahzadeh J (2014) Effects of zinc supplementation on efficacy of antidepressant therapy, inflammatory cytokines, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with major depression. Nutr Neurosci 17(2):65–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 28.Tayefi M, Shafiee M, Kazemi-Bajestani SMR, Esmaeili H, Darroudi S, Khakpouri S, Mohammadi M, Ghaneifar Z, Azarpajouh MR, Moohebati M (2017) Depression and anxiety both associate with serum level of hs-CRP: a gender-stratified analysis in a population-based study. Psychoneuroendocrinology 81:63–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 29.Shafiee M, Tayefi M, Hassanian SM, Ghaneifar Z, Parizadeh MR, Avan A, Rahmani F, Khorasanchi Z, Azarpajouh MR, Safarian H (2017) Depression and anxiety symptoms are associated with white blood cell count and red cell distribution width: a sex-stratified analysis in a population-based study. Psychoneuroendocrinology 84:101–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar