The Adverse Effects of Se Toxicity on Inflammatory and Immune Responses in Chicken Spleens
- 175 Downloads
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element, but excessive intake of Se could induce Se poisoning, and result in various health problems. NF-κB regulated many molecules of the immune response and the inflammatory response, and Th1/Th2 balance played a key in the regulation of immune response. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of NF-κB pathway and Th1/Th2 imbalance in the adverse influence of Se poisoning on chicken spleens. In the current study, 90 chickens were randomly divided into two groups (n = 45 per group). The chickens were maintained either on a basal diet (the control group) containing 0.2 mg/kg Se or a high supplemented diet (the Se group) containing 15 mg/kg Se for 45 days. Then, we observed the pathohistology of spleen cells and detected NO content, iNOS activity, and the expression of NF-κB, iNOS, COX-2, PTGE, IL-6, TNF-α, Foxp3, IL-4, and IFN-γ in chicken spleens. In chicken spleens of the Se group, the result showed typical characteristics of inflammation: the content of NO and the activity of iNOS were increased, and the expression of NF-κB, iNOS, COX-2, PTGE, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-4 was enhanced and that of Foxp3 and IFN-γ was decreased. Our study showed that Se toxicity could promote inflammation via NF-κB pathway, impairing the immune function, and changing Th1/Th2 balance in the chicken spleens.
KeywordsChicken spleens Se toxicity Inflammation Immune response
The authors thank the Elsevier English Language Editing System to correct grammatical, spelling, and other common errors.
The present work was financially supported by Southwest University of Science and Technology (15zx7121) and National Defense Basic Research Project (16zg6101).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- 2.Yao H, Fan R, Zhao X, Zhao W, Liu W, Yang J, Sattar H, Zhao J, Zhang Z, Xu S (2011) Selenoprotein W redox-regulated Ca2+ channels correlate with selenium deficiency-induced muscles Ca2+ leak. Oncotarget 7:57618Google Scholar
- 4.Yao HD, Wu Q, Zhang ZW, Zhang JL, Li S, Huang JQ, Ren FZ, Xu SW, Wang XL, Lei XG (2013) Gene expression of endoplasmic reticulum resident selenoproteins correlates with apoptosis in various muscles of se-deficient chicks. J Nutr 143(5):613–619. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.112.172395 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 9.Spallholz JE, Palace VP, Reid TW (2004) Methioninase and selenomethionine but not Se-methylselenocysteine generate methylselenol and superoxide in an in vitro chemiluminescent assay: implications for the nutritional carcinostatic activity of selenoamino acids. Biochem Pharmacol 67(3):547–554. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2003.09.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 14.Giacconi R, Costarelli L, Malavolta M, Cardelli M, Galeazzi R, Piacenza F, Gasparini N, Basso A, Mariani E, Fulop T (2015) Effect of ZIP2 Gln/Arg/Leu (rs2234632) polymorphism on zinc homeostasis and inflammatory response following zinc supplementation. Biofactors 41(6):414–423. https://doi.org/10.1002/biof.1247 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 17.Ninkov M, Popov Aleksandrov A, Demenesku J, Mirkov I, Mileusnic D, Petrovic A, Grigorov I, Zolotarevski L, Tolinacki M, Kataranovski D, Brceski I, Kataranovski M (2015) Toxicity of oral Cd intake: impact on gut immunity. Toxicol Lett 237(2):89–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2015.06.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 18.Barrett CW, Singh K, Motley AK, Lintel MK, Matafonova E, Bradley AM, Ning W, Poindexter SV, Parang B, Reddy VK, Chaturvedi R, Fingleton BM, Washington MK, Wilson KT, Davies SS, Hill KE, Burk RF, Williams CS (2013) Dietary selenium deficiency exacerbates DSS-induced epithelial injury and AOM/DSS-induced tumorigenesis. PLoS One 8(7):e67845. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067845 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 19.Li X, Xing M, Chen M, Zhao J, Fan R, Zhao X, Cao C, Yang J, Zhang Z, Xu S (2017) Effects of selenium-Pb interaction on the gene expression of inflammatory factors and selenoproteins in chicken neutrophils. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 139:447–453. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.02.017 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 25.Mcadam E, Haboubi HN, Forrester G, Eltahir Z, Spencer-Harty S, Davies C, Griffiths AP, Baxter JN, Jenkins GJ (2012) Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) are important mediators of reflux-induced cell signalling in esophageal cells. Carcinogenesis 33(11):2035–2043. https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgs241 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 28.Wang Y-C, Hu Y-W, Sha Y-H, Gao J-J, Ma X, Li S-F, Zhao J-Y, Qiu Y-R, Lu J-B, Huang C, Zhao J-J, Zheng L, Wang Q (2015) Ox-LDL upregulates IL-6 expression by enhancing NF-κB in an IGF2-dependent manner in THP-1 macrophages. Inflammation 38(6):2116–2123. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10753-015-0194-1 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 29.Chen C-C, Sun Y-T, Chen J-J, Chiu K-T (2000) TNF-α-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human lung epithelial cells: involvement of the phospholipase C-γ2, protein kinase C-α, tyrosine kinase, NF-κB-inducing kinase, and I-κB kinase 1/2 pathway. J Immunol 165(5):2719–2728. https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.165.5.2719 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 31.Phuagkhaopong S, Ospondpant D, Kasemsuk T, Sibmooh N, Soodvilai S, Power C, Vivithanaporn P (2017) Cd-induced IL-6 and IL-8 expression and release from astrocytes are mediated by MAPK and NF-κB pathways. Neurotoxicology 60:82–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2017.03.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 32.Yang T, Cao C, Yang J, Liu T, Lei XG, Zhang Z, Xu S (2017) miR-200a-5p regulates myocardial necroptosis induced by Se deficiency via targeting RNF11. Redox Biol 15:159–169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2017.11.025
- 34.Bretscher PA (2014) On the mechanism determining the Th1/Th2 phenotype of an immune response, and its pertinence to strategies for the prevention, and treatment, of certain infectious diseases. Scand J Immunol 79(6):361–376. https://doi.org/10.1111/sji.12175 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar