Advertisement

Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 184, Issue 2, pp 501–507 | Cite as

Health Risk Contamination of Heavy Metals in Yolk and Albumen of Duck Eggs Collected in Central and Western Thailand

  • P. Aendo
  • R. Netvichian
  • S. Tippayalak
  • A. Sanguankiat
  • T. Khuntamoon
  • T. Songserm
  • P. Tulayakul
Article
  • 189 Downloads

Abstract

Two hundred duck egg samples were collected from 20 farms in Central and Western Thailand. The levels of Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, and Cr in yolks were found significantly higher than in albumen, whereas the levels of Cd and Cu contaminations in egg albumen were significantly higher than in yolks. The mean level of Pb contamination in whole eggs was 4.06 ± 2.70 mg kg−1 dry weight. This level was higher than the Thai agricultural standard no. 6703-2005 for duck eggs set at 0.1 ppm for the magnitude of 40.6 times. In addition, 98% (196/200) of duck egg samples had Pb levels higher than the standard limit. However, the calculation of daily intakes of Pb, Cd, and Cu contamination in the current study of duck eggs shows that these metals were lower than the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization provisional tolerated daily intake. These levels may, however, present a health risk resulting from a long-term exposure. It can be concluded that consumers may be at risk of Pb, Cd, and Cu contamination if they consume contaminated duck eggs. In addition, long-term monitoring of the health risks of heavy metals contamination should be conducted concerning the duck egg production system in Thailand.

Keywords

Heavy metal Yolk Albumen Duck egg Thailand 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to express our gratitude to all duck farmers whom enthusiastically supported this study and for the grant-in-aid from The Thailand Research Fund (TRF), RDG no.5720053.

References

  1. 1.
    Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University and Nutrition Division, Department of Health, Ministry of Public Health (2008) Eat fish, lean meat, eggs, legumes and pulses regularly. Food based dietary guideline for Thai 15–18. IOP Publishing PhysicsWep. http://www.fao.org/3/a-as887e. pdf. Accessed 23 April 2017
  2. 2.
    International Dairy Federation (1991) Monograph on residue and contaminants in milk and milk products. In Heap, Carl, M. (Ed). Brussels (Belgium), chapter 6, p 112–119Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Burger J, Gochfeld M (1991) Cadmium and lead in common terns (Aves: Sterna hirundo): relationship between levels in parents and eggs. Environ Monit Assess 16(3):253–258.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00397612 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Burger J (1994) Heavy metals in avian eggshells: another excretion method. J Toxicol Environ Health 41(2):207–220.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15287399409531837 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nisianakis P, Gianneas I, Gavriil A, Kontopidis G, Kyriazakis I (2009) Variation in trace element contents among chicken, turkey, duck, goose, and pigeon eggs analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS). Biol Trace Elem Res 128(1):62–71.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-008-8249-x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kaya S, Alabay B, Baydan E, Altunay H (1996) The teratogenic effects of heavy metals in chicken embryo. J Ciftlik 148:48–60Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    International Occupational Safety and health information centre (1999) The first 50 years: an interview with Sheila Pantry. Maria Castriotta Prev Day 5(3/4):1–12Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jeng SL, Yang CP (1995) Determination of lead, mercury and copper concentrations in duck eggs in Taiwan. Poult Sci 74(1):187–193.  https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0740187 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jeng SL, Lee SJ, Liu YF, Yang SC, Liou PP (1997) Effect of lead ingestion on concentration of lead in tissues and eggs of laying Tsaing duck in Taiwan. Poult Sci 76(1):13–16.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/76.1.13 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Information and Statistics Department of Livestock (2015) Information livestock farmers duck zone. The fiscal year 2015. IOP Publishing PhysicsWep. http://ict.dld.go.th/th2/images/stories/stat_web/yearly/2558/6.duck_region.pdf, 5. Accessed 10 Jun 2016
  11. 11.
    Bureau of Product Standards and Quality Systems of National Bureau of Agricultural Commodity and Food Standards, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives (2006) Food consumption data of Thailand. IOP Publishing PhysicsWep. http://www.acfs.go.th/document/download_document/food_consumption_data.pdf. Accessed 2 Nov 2016
  12. 12.
    Pitot CH, Dragan PY (1996) “Chemical carcinogenesis” in: Casarett and Doull’s toxicology, vol 1996, 5th edn. Mc Graw Hill, New York, pp 201–260Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Russell LH (1978) Heavy metal in foods of animal origin. Toxicity of heavy metals in the environment. F W. Oehme, ed. Marcel Decker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fakayode SO, Olu-Owolabi IB (2003) Trace metal content and estimated daily human intake form chicken eggs in Ibadan, Nigeria. Arch Environ Health 58(4):245–251.  https://doi.org/10.3200/AEOH.58.4.245-251 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tsipoura N, Burger J, Newhouse M, Jeitner C, Gochfeld M, Mizrahi D (2011) Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands. Environ Res 111(6):775–784.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2011.05.013 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ashmamy AMAM (2013) Trace element residues in the table eggs rolling in the Mansora City markets Egypt. IFRJ 20:1783–1787Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Khademi N, Riyahi-Bakhtiari A, Sobhanardakani S, Rezaie-Atagholipour M, Burger J (2015) Developing a bioindicator in the northwestern Persian Gulf, Iran: trace elements in bird eggs and coastal sediments. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 68(2):274–282.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-014-0084-9 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jarup L, Berglund M, Elinder CG, Nordberg G, Vahter M (1998) Health effects of cadmium exposure—a review of the literature and a risk estimate. Scand J Work Environ Health 24:1–51CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Klaassen CD (2008) Casarette&Doull’s Toxicology (The Basic Science of Poisons), 7th edn. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc, New York, pp 931–980Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zhitkovich A (2005) Importance of chromium-DNA adducts in mutagenicity and toxicity of chromium (VI). Chem Res Toxicol 18(1):3–11.  https://doi.org/10.1021/tx049774+ CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service “USDA” (2011) USDA National Nutrient Database for standard reference, release 24. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page. IOP Publishing PhysicsWep. http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl. Accessed 2 June 2016
  22. 22.
    Hunt JR (1994) Bioavailability of Fe, Zn and other Trace Minerals for Vegetarian Diets. Am J Clin Nutr 78:633–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jiang Y, Zheng W (2005) Cardiovascular toxicities upon manganese exposure. Cardiovasc Toxicol 5(4):345–354.  https://doi.org/10.1385/CT:5:4:345 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kertész V, Bakonyi G, Farkas B (2006) Water pollution by Cu and Pb can adversely affect mallard embryonic development. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 65(1):67–73.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2005.05.016 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mora MA (2003) Heavy metals and metalloids in egg contents and eggshells of passerine birds from Arizona. Environ Pollut 125(3):393–400.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(03)00108-8 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhong Z, Zhang C, Rizak DJ, Cui Y, Xu S, Che Y (2010) Chronic prenatal lead exposure impairs long-term memory in day old chicks. Neurosci Lett 476(1):23–26.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2010.03.074 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lamphear BP, Dietrich K, Auinger P, Cox C (2000) Cognitive deficit associated with blood lead concentration < μg/dL in U children and adolescents. Public Health Rep 115(6):521–529.  https://doi.org/10.1093/phr/115.6.521 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    JECFA (2011) Safety evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Paper presented at: 73rd meeting of the joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives. WHO food additives series 64Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Alfven T, Elinder CG, Carlsson MD, Grubb A, Hellstrom L, Persson B, Pettersson C, Spang G, Schutz A, Jarup L (2000) Low-level cadmium exposure and osteoporosis. J Bone Mine Res 15(8):1579–1586.  https://doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.2000.15.8.1579 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhong N, Zeng QR, Jiang JL (2005) Advance of studies on the toxicology of trace element cadmium to livestock and poultry. Studies Trace Element Health 22:35–38Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wang Y, Fu XY, Gu HJ, Yuan Y, Liu ZX, Bian CJ, Liu PZ (2014) Cadmium induces the differentiation of duck embryonic bone marrow cells into osteoclasts in vitro. Vet J 200(1):181–185.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.02.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nogawa K, Honda R, Kido T, Tsuritani I, Yamada Y, Ishizaki M, Yamaya H (1989) A dose-response analysis of cadmium in the general environment with special reference to total cadmium intake limit. Environ Res 48(1):7–16.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0013-9351(89)80080-5 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    ATSDR (1999) Toxicological Profire cadmium. IOP Publishing PhysicsWep. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov. Accessed 3 Aug 2016
  34. 34.
    Araya M, McGoldrick MC, Klevay LM, Strain JJ, Robson P, Nielsen F, Olivares M, Pizarro F, Johnson L, Poirier KA (2001) Determination of an acute no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for copper in water. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 34(2):137–148.  https://doi.org/10.1006/rtph.2001.1492 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gotteland M, Araya M, Pizarro F, Olivares M (2001) Effect of acute copper exposure on gastrointestinal permeability in healthy volunteers. Dig Dis Sci 46(9):1909–1914.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010683014390 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    ATSDR (2004) Toxicological profile for copper, Department of Public Health and Human services, public health service. Atlanta, GA:USGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Duck Health Science, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineKasetsart University Kamphaeng Saen CampusNakhon PathomThailand
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand
  3. 3.Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineKasetsart University Kamphaeng Saen CampusNakhon PathomThailand
  4. 4.Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineKasetsart University Kamphaeng Saen CampusNakhon PathomThailand

Personalised recommendations