Mercury Exposure: Protein Biomarkers of Mercury Exposure in Jaraqui Fish from the Amazon Region
- 342 Downloads
This study presents data on the extraction and characterization of proteins associated with mercury in the muscle and liver tissues of jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp.) from the Madeira River in the Brazilian Amazon. Protein fractionation was carried out by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). Mercury determination in tissues, pellets, and protein spots was performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Proteins in the spots that showed mercury were characterized by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). The highest mercury concentrations were found in liver tissues and pellets (426 ± 6 and 277 ± 4 μg kg−1), followed by muscle tissues and pellets (132 ± 4 and 86 ± 1 μg kg−1, respectively). Mercury quantification in the protein spots allowed us to propose stoichiometric ratios in the range of 1–4 mercury atoms per molecule of protein in the protein spots. The proteins characterized in the analysis by ESI-MS/MS were keratin, type II cytoskeletal 8, parvalbumin beta, parvalbumin-2, ubiquitin-40S ribosomal S27a, 39S ribosomal protein L36 mitochondrial, hemoglobin subunit beta, and hemoglobin subunit beta-A/B. The results suggest that proteins such as ubiquitin-40S ribosomal protein S27a, which have specific domains, possibly zinc finger, can be used as biomarkers of mercury, whereas mercury and zinc present characteristics of soft acids.
KeywordsMercury in fish Biomarkers of mercury exposure Metallomics study 2D-PAGE ESI-MS/MS
The authors thank the Brazilian research funding agency ANEEL/ESBR-P&D: 6631-0001/2012/Contract Jirau 004/2013, São Paulo State Research Foundation (Processes: 2012/24035-5, 2013/21297-1 and 2014/02668-1).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- 7.Braga CP, Bittarello AC, Padilha CC, Leite AL, Moraes PM, Buzalaf MA, Zara LF, Padilha PM (2015) Mercury fractionation in dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii) of the Madeira River in Brazil using metalloproteomic strategies. Talanta 132:239–244. doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2014.09.021 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 9.Ceccatto APS, Testoni MC, Ignácio ARA, Santos-Filho M, Malm M, Díez S (2015) Mercury distribution in organs of fish species and the associated risk in traditional subsistence villagers of the Pantanal wetland. Environ Geochem Health. doi: 10.1007/s10653-015-9754-4
- 16.Dos Santos FA, Cavecci B, Vieira JCS, Franzini VP, Santos A, Leite AL, Buzalaf MA, Zara LF, Padilha PM (2015) A metalloproteomics study on the association of mercury with breast milk in samples from lactating women in the Amazon region of Brazil. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 69:223–229. doi: 10.1007/s00244-015-0161-8 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 17.Vieira JCS, Cavecci B, Queiroz JV, Braga CP, Padilha CC, Leite AL, Figueiredo WS, Buzalaf MA, Zara LF, Padilha PM (2015) Determination of the mercury fraction linked to protein of muscle and liver tissue of Tucunaré (Cichla spp.) from the Amazon region of Brazil. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 69:422–430. doi: 10.1007/s00244-015-0160-9 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 18.Lima PM, Neves RDCF, Dos Santos FA, Pérez CA, Silva MO, Arruda MA, Castro GR, Padilha PM (2010) Analytical approach to the metallomic of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) liver tissue by SRXRF and FAAS after 2D-PAGE separation: preliminary results. Talanta 82:1052–1056. doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2010.06.023 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 25.Kim BM, Choi AL, Ha EH, Pedersen L, Nielsen F, Weihe P, Hong YC, Jorgensen EB, Grandjean P (2014) Effect of hemoglobin adjustment on the precision of mercury concentrations in maternal and cord blood. Environ Res 132:407–412. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2014.04.030 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 27.Chudinova TV, Belekhova MG, Tostivint H, Ward H, Rio JP, Kenigfest NB (2012) Differences in parvalbumin and calbindin chemospecificity in the centers of the turtle ascending auditory pathway revealed by double immunofluorescence labeling. Brain Res 1473:87–103. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2012.07.022 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 28.UniProt (2007) http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P68200. Accessed 16 Aug 2017
- 30.Paula MT, Zemolin AP, Vargas AP, Golombieski RM, Loreto EL, Saidelles AP, Picoloto RS, Flores EM, Pereira AB, Rocha JB, Merritt TJ, Franco JL, Posser T (2014) Effects of Hg(II) exposure on MAPK phosphorylation and antioxidant system in D. melanogaster. Environ Toxicol 29:621–630. doi: 10.1002/tox.21788 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar