Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 182, Issue 2, pp 303–308 | Cite as

Essential Elements as Biomarkers of Acute Kidney Injury and Spontaneous Reversion

  • Regiane Marinho da Silva
  • Gui Mi Ko
  • Rinaldo Florêncio Silva
  • Ludmila Cabreira Vieira
  • Rafael Vicente de Paula
  • Júlio Takehiro Marumo
  • Amanda Ikegami
  • Maria Helena Bellini


Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important health problem and can be caused by number of factors. The use of aminoglycosides, such as gentamicin, is one of these factors. Recently, an effort has been made to find biomarkers to guide treatment protocols. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used to estimate the contents of Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, and Zn in serum and urine of the healthy, AKI, and spontaneous recovery (SR) groups of animals. The animal model of AKI and SR was validated by measuring serum and urinary urea and creatinine. The quantitative determination of the elements showed a decrease in serum levels of Ca, and Fe in the AKI group (P<0.01 vs. healthy), with a return to normal levels in the SR group, without a significant difference between the healthy and SR groups. In the urine samples, there was a decrease in P and Na levels in the AKI group (P<0.001 and P<0.01 vs. healthy), but Ca levels were increased in this group compared with the healthy and SR groups (P<0.01). These findings indicate that mineral elements might be useful as biomarkers for AKI.


Essential elements Acute kidney injury ICP-OES Gentamicin 



This study was supported by FAPESP 2014/19265-7.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

All procedures were performed according to the recommendations of the Research Ethics Committee of UNIFESP/SP (Project No. 9287290915/CEUA). Moreover, this committee oversaw all experimental animal procedures.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Regiane Marinho da Silva
    • 1
  • Gui Mi Ko
    • 1
  • Rinaldo Florêncio Silva
    • 1
  • Ludmila Cabreira Vieira
    • 2
  • Rafael Vicente de Paula
    • 3
  • Júlio Takehiro Marumo
    • 2
  • Amanda Ikegami
    • 2
  • Maria Helena Bellini
    • 2
  1. 1.Federal University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Nuclear and Energy Research InstituteSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Itatijuca BiotechSão PauloBrazil

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