Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 182, Issue 2, pp 287–294 | Cite as

An Investigation of Protective Effects of Litium Borate on Blood and Histopathological Parameters in Acute Cadmium-Induced Rats

  • Serkan Yildirim
  • Fatih Caglar Celikezen
  • Gökhan Oto
  • Emin Sengul
  • Mehmet Bulduk
  • M Tasdemir
  • D. Ali CinarEmail author


This study was carried out to determine the protective effects of lithium borate (LTB) on blood parameters and histopathological findings in experimentally induced acute cadmium (Cd) toxicity in rats. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats were used, weighing 200–220 g, and they were randomly divided into four groups, including one control and the following three experimental groups: a Cd group (0.025 mmol/kg), a LTB group (15 mg/kg/day orally for 5 days), and a LTB + Cd group (15 mg/kg/day orally for 5 days and Cd 0.025 mmol/kg by intraperitoneal injection on the fifth day). All the rats in the study were anesthetized with ketamine at the end of the sixth day, blood was taken from their hearts, and then the rats were decapitated. The values in the control and LTB group were usually close to each other. White blood cell (WBC), neutrophil %, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels increased in the Cd and LTB + Cd groups while lymphocyte and monocyte levels decreased in a statistically significant manner, in comparison to the other groups. It was determined that the levels of red blood cells (RBCs), hematocrit (Htc), and hemoglobin (Hb) did not change in the groups. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the Cd and LTB + Cd groups significantly increased, in comparison to the other groups, while the glucose, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin (ALB), and total protein (TP) levels decreased. According to histopathological findings in the control and LTB groups, the liver and kidney tissues were found to have normal histological structures. In the Cd group, severe necrotic hemorrhagic hepatitis, mild steatosis, and mononuclear cell infiltration were detected in the liver. In the LTB + Cd group, degeneration and mild mononuclear cell infiltration were found in the liver. Regarding the kidney tissue in the Cd group, severe intertubular hyperemia in both kidney cortex and medulla, as well as degeneration and necrosis in the tubulus epithelium, was observed. In the LTB + Cd group, mild interstitial hyperemia and mononuclear cell infiltration was detected. Resultantly, it can be said that LTB at this dose has non-toxic effects and some beneficial effects for liver and kidney damage caused by acute Cd toxicity.


Acut cadmium toxcicity Blood parameters Histopathological findings Lithium borate Rat 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Serkan Yildirim
    • 1
  • Fatih Caglar Celikezen
    • 2
  • Gökhan Oto
    • 3
  • Emin Sengul
    • 4
  • Mehmet Bulduk
    • 5
  • M Tasdemir
    • 2
  • D. Ali Cinar
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineAtaturk UniversityErzurumTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Chemisty, Faculty of Sciences and Letter Bitlis Eren UniversityBitlisTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of MedicineYuzuncu Yil UniversityVanTurkey
  4. 4.Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineAtaturk UniversityErzurumTurkey
  5. 5.Ercis Vocational High SchoolYuzuncu Yil UniversityVanTurkey

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