Hair Trace Element and Electrolyte Content in Women with Natural and In Vitro Fertilization-Induced Pregnancy
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The objective of the present study was to perform comparative analysis of hair trace element content in women with natural and in vitro fertilization (IVF)-induced pregnancy. Hair trace element content in 33 women with IVF-induced pregnancy and 99 age- and body mass index-matched control pregnant women (natural pregnancy) was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results demonstrated that IVF-pregnant women are characterized by significantly lower hair levels of Cu, Fe, Si, Zn, Ca, Mg, and Ba at p < 0.05 or lower. Comparison of the individual levels with the national reference values demonstrated higher incidence of Fe and Cu deficiency in IVF-pregnant women in comparison to that of the controls. IVF pregnancy was also associated with higher hair As levels (p < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant interrelation between IVF pregnancy and hair Cu, Fe, Si, and As content. Hair Cu levels were also influenced by vitamin/mineral supplementation and the number of pregnancies, whereas hair Zn content was dependent on prepregnancy anthropometric parameters. In turn, planning of pregnancy had a significant impact on Mg levels in scalp hair. Generally, the obtained data demonstrate an elevated risk of copper, iron, zinc, calcium, and magnesium deficiency and arsenic overload in women with IVF-induced pregnancy. The obtained data indicate the necessity of regular monitoring of micronutrient status in IVF-pregnant women in order to prevent potential deleterious effects of altered mineral homeostasis.
KeywordsIn vitro fertilization Iron Copper Deficiency Arsenic
The reesearch has been supported by the Grant from the Russian Science Foundation (project no. 14-48-00043) of Tomsk State University.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
The research protocol of the current study was approved by the Ethics Committee for Interdisciplinary Investigations (Tomsk State University/Psychological Institute of the Russian Academy of Education). The study was carried out in agreement with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments. All women took part in the present investigation on a voluntary basis and were informed about the experimental procedures. The informed consent was signed by all participants before the investigation.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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