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Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 179, Issue 1, pp 59–69 | Cite as

The Effect of Sodium Fluoride on Cell Apoptosis and the Mechanism of Human Lung BEAS-2B Cells In Vitro

  • Jun Ying
  • Jie Xu
  • Liping Shen
  • Zhijie Mao
  • Jingchen Liang
  • Shuangxiang Lin
  • Xinyan Yu
  • Ruowang Pan
  • Chunxia Yan
  • Shengbin Li
  • Qiyu BaoEmail author
  • Peizhen LiEmail author
Article

Abstract

Sodium fluoride (NaF) is a source of fluoride ions used in many applications. Previous studies found that NaF suppressed the proliferation of osteoblast MC3T3 E1 cells and induced the apoptosis of chondrocytes. However, little is known about the effects of NaF on human lung BEAS-2B cells. Therefore, we investigated the mode of cell death induced by NaF and its underlying molecular mechanisms. BEAS-2B cells were treated with NaF at concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mmol/L. Cell viability decreased and apoptotic cells significantly increased as concentrations of NaF increased over specific periods of time. The IC50 of NaF was 1.9 and 0.9 mM after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The rates of apoptosis increased from 4.8 to 37.7% after NaF exposure. HE staining, electron microscopy, and single cell gel electrophoresis revealed that morphological changes of apoptosis increased with exposure concentrations. RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the apoptotic pathways. The expressions of bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, p53, and the cytoplasmic CytC of the NaF groups increased, while bcl-2 and mitochondrial CytC decreased compared with that of the control group (P < 0.05). Further, the fluorescence intensities of ROS in the NaF groups were higher than those in the control group, and the membrane potential of mitochondria in the NaF group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.05). These findings suggested that NaF induced apoptosis in the BEAS-2B cells through mitochondria-mediated signal pathways. Our study provides the theoretical foundation and experimental basis for exploring the mechanisms of human lung epithelial cell damage and cytotoxicity induced by fluorine.

Keywords

Sodium fluoride Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells Cell apoptosis Reactive oxygen species Mitochondrial membrane potential 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (30571009, 81501808, 81501780), the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Z307471, LQ17H160015), the National Undergraduate Training Program for Innovation and Entrepreneurship (201510343003), and the Science and Technology Foundation of Wenzhou City (H20110010).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jun Ying
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jie Xu
    • 1
    • 3
  • Liping Shen
    • 1
    • 3
  • Zhijie Mao
    • 1
    • 3
  • Jingchen Liang
    • 1
    • 3
  • Shuangxiang Lin
    • 1
    • 3
  • Xinyan Yu
    • 1
    • 3
  • Ruowang Pan
    • 4
  • Chunxia Yan
    • 2
  • Shengbin Li
    • 2
  • Qiyu Bao
    • 1
    Email author
  • Peizhen Li
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Laboratory Medicine and Life Science/Institute of Biomedical InformaticsWenzhou Medical UniversityWenzhouChina
  2. 2.School of Forensic MedicineXi’an Jiaotong UniversityXi’anChina
  3. 3.School of RenjiWenzhou Medical UniversityWenzhouChina
  4. 4.118 Hospital of PLAWenzhouChina

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