Association of Mood Disorders with Serum Zinc Concentrations in Adolescent Female Students
- 590 Downloads
Among various factors influencing mood disorders, the impact of micronutrient deficiencies has attracted a great attention. Zinc deficiency is considered to play a crucial role in the onset and progression of mood disorders in different stages of life. The main objective of this study was to assess the correlation between serum zinc levels and mood disorders in high school female students. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 100 representative high school female students. The participants completed 24-h food recall questionnaires to assess the daily zinc intakes. Serum zinc status was assessed using flame atomic absorption spectrometry, and zinc deficiency was defined accordingly. Mood disorders were estimated by calculating the sum of two test scores including Beck’s depression inventory (BDI) and hospital anxiety depression scale (HADS) tests. General linear model (GLM) and Pearson’s regression test were applied to show the correlation of serum zinc levels and mood disorder scores and the correlation between zinc serum levels and BDI scores, respectively. Dietary zinc intake was higher in subjects with normal zinc concentrations than that of zinc-deficient group (p = 0.001). Serum zinc levels were inversely correlated with BDI and HADS scores (p < 0.05). Each 10 μg/dL increment in serum zinc levels led to 0.3 and 0.01 decrease in depression and anxiety scores, respectively (p < 0.05). Serum zinc levels were inversely correlated with mood disorders including depression and anxiety in adolescent female students. Increasing serum levels of zinc in female students could improve their mood disorders.
KeywordsFemale Mood disorders Serum zinc levels Students Zinc
We wish to thank all the participants and their parents and also the colleagues at the high school who kindly co-operated with us.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This study was a part of Ms. Kobra Tahmasebi’s MSc thesis, and the laboratory costs were covered by a grant of Vice-chancellor for Research at the Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
“All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from parents of all subjects and assent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.”
- 2.WHO (2002) Estimates of DALYs by sex, cause and level of development for 2002 http://www.who.int/healthinfo/bodgbd2002revised/en/index.htm
- 3.WHO (2006) Department of non-communicable disease surveillance. www.who.int.com
- 4.Lecomte DaPF (1998) Suicide among youth and young adults, 15 through 24 years of age: a report of 392 cases from Paris, 1989–1996. J For Sci 1998Google Scholar
- 6.Spielberger CD (2010) State-trait anxiety inventory. In: Corsini encyclopedia of psychologyGoogle Scholar
- 9.Ahmadi SM, Mohammadi MR, Mostafavi SA, Keshavarzi S, Kooshesh SM, Joulaei H, Sarikhani Y, Peimani P, Heydari ST, Lankarani KB (2013) Dependence of the geriatric depression on nutritional status and anthropometric indices in elderly population. Iranian journal of psychiatry 8(2):92–96PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 11.Li YVaCJF (2013) Zinc-secreting neurons, gluzincergic and zincergic neurons. Encyclopedia of metalloproteins. SpringerGoogle Scholar
- 14.Marcellini F, Giuli C, Papa R, Gagliardi C, Dedoussis G, Herbein G, Fulop T, Monti D, Rink L, Jajte J, Mocchegiani E (2006) Zinc status, psychological and nutritional assessment in old people recruited in five European countries: Zincage study. Biogerontology 7(5–6):339–345. doi: 10.1007/s10522-006-9048-4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 17.Leite LD, de Medeiros Rocha ED, das Gracas Almeida M, Rezende AA, da Silva CA, Franca MC, Marchini JS, Brandao-Neto J (2009) Sensitivity of zinc kinetics and nutritional assessment of children submitted to venous zinc tolerance test. J Am Coll Nutr 28 (4):405–412Google Scholar
- 18.Agency CS (2005) Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey 2005—Unicef. MEASURE DHS ORC. www.unicef.org/ethiopia/DHS_2005_Ethiopia.pdf. Accessed September 2016
- 19.(NHANES) NHaNES (2007) Anthropometry procedures manual. CDCGoogle Scholar
- 20.Burtis CA, E.R. Ashwood, and D.E. Bruns, (2012) Tietz textbook of clinical chemistry and molecular diagnostics. Elsevier Health SciencesGoogle Scholar
- 28.Islam MR, Ahmed MU, Mitu SA, Islam MS, Rahman GK, Qusar MM, Hasnat A (2013) Comparative analysis of serum zinc, copper, manganese, iron, calcium, and magnesium level and complexity of interelement relations in generalized anxiety disorder patients. Biol Trace Elem Res 154(1):21–27. doi: 10.1007/s12011-013-9723-7 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 33.Siwek M, Dudek D, Schlegel-Zawadzka M, Morawska A, Piekoszewski W, Opoka W, Zieba A, Pilc A, Popik P, Nowak G (2010) Serum zinc level in depressed patients during zinc supplementation of imipramine treatment. J Affect Disord 126(3):447–452. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2010.04.024 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 36.Ranjbar E, Shams J, Sabetkasaei M, M-Shirazi M, Rashidkhani B, Mostafavi A, Bornak E, Nasrollahzadeh J (2014) Effects of zinc supplementation on efficacy of antidepressant therapy, inflammatory cytokines, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with major depression. Nutr Neurosci 17(2):65–71. doi: 10.1179/1476830513Y.0000000066 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 39.Sandstead HH, Prasad AS, Penland JG, Beck FW, Kaplan J, Egger NG, Alcock NW, Carroll RM, Ramanujam VM, Dayal HH, Rocco CD, Plotkin RA, Zavaleta AN (2008) Zinc deficiency in Mexican American children: influence of zinc and other micronutrients on T cells, cytokines, and antiinflammatory plasma proteins. Am J Clin Nutr 88(4):1067–1073PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 42.Moran VH, Stammers AL, Medina MW, Patel S, Dykes F, Souverein OW, Dullemeijer C, Perez-Rodrigo C, Serra-Majem L, Nissensohn M, Lowe NM (2012) The relationship between zinc intake and serum/plasma zinc concentration in children: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis. Nutrients 4(8):841–858. doi: 10.3390/nu4080841 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar