Advertisement

Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 175, Issue 2, pp 388–395 | Cite as

Taurine Ameliorates Renal Oxidative Damage and Thyroid Dysfunction in Rats Chronically Exposed to Fluoride

  • Isaac A. AdedaraEmail author
  • Temini Jesu D. Ojuade
  • Bolanle F. Olabiyi
  • Umar F. Idris
  • Esther M. Onibiyo
  • Olufunke F. Ajeigbe
  • Ebenezer O. Farombi
Article

Abstract

Excessive exposure to fluoride poses several detrimental effects to human health particularly the kidney which is a major organ involved in its elimination from the body. The influence of taurine on fluoride-induced renal toxicity was investigated in a co-exposure paradigm for 45 days using five groups of eight rats each. Group I rats received normal drinking water alone, group II rats were exposed to sodium fluoride (NaF) in drinking water at 15 mg/L alone, group III received taurine alone at a dose of 200 mg/kg group IV rats were co-administered with NaF and taurine (100 mg/kg), while group V rats were co-administered with NaF and taurine (200 mg/kg). Administration of taurine significantly reversed the fluoride-mediated decrease in absolute weight and organo-somatic index of the kidney in the exposed rats. Taurine significantly prevented fluoride-induced elevation in plasma urea and creatinine levels in the exposed rats. Moreover, taurine restored fluoride-mediated decrease in the circulatory concentrations of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and the ratio of triiodothyronine to thyroxine. Taurine ameliorated fluoride-mediated decrease in renal antioxidant status by significantly enhancing the antioxidant enzyme activities as well as glutathione level in the exposed rats. Additionally, taurine inhibited fluoride-induced renal oxidative damage by markedly decreasing the hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde levels as well as improved the kidney architecture in the treated rats. Collectively, taurine protected against fluoride-induced renal toxicity via enhancement of thyroid gland function, renal antioxidant status, and histology in rats.

Keywords

Fluoride Taurine Renal toxicity Thyroid hormones Rats 

Notes

Acknowledgment

This research was done without specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

Reference

  1. 1.
    Ayoob S, Gupta AK (2006) Fluoride in drinking water: a review on the status and stress effects. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 36:433–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    USNRC (1993) Health effects of ingested fluoride. National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington D.CGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    World Health Organization (2004). Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality (GDWQ). WHO/SDE/WSH/03.04/96. Pp 1–17.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cao SR (1992) Study on preventive and control measures on coal-combustion type endemic fluorosis in the three gorges area in China. (proceedings of the fourth National Academic Conference on endemic fluorosis. Chin J Endemic Die II(Suppl):6–21Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    World Health Organization (2002) Fluorides. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ding JP, Mao JQ, Gu SY (1998) Fluoride contamination and its control of lava groundwater in Guiyang dam area. Environ Protect Sci Technol 3:14–15Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wu GJ, Xu BF, Lu L (2006) Comment on fluorine pollution and prevention of Shilongba hydro-electric power station. J Kunming Univ Sci Technol 31:55–58Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Saralakumari D, Ramakrishna RP (1993) Endemic fluorosis in the village Ralla Anantapuram in Andhra Pradesh: an epidemiological study. Fluoride 26:177Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Atmaca N, Atmaca HT, Kanici A, Anteplioglu T (2014) Protective effect of resveratrol on sodium fluoride-induced oxidative stress, hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 70:191–197CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shashi A, Singh JP, Thapar SP (2002) Toxic effects of fluoride on rabbit kidney. Fluoride 35:38–50Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Liu GY, Chai CHY, Kang SHL (2002) Effects of fluoride on the ultrastructure of thyroid in chicks. Chin J Vet Sci 22:512–514Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    VV P, VT D (2015) Exposure to sodium fluoride affects thyroid follicular cells in albino rats. Int J Plant, Animal and Environ Sci 5l:56–61Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Karaoz E, Oncu M, Gulle K, Kanter M, Gultekin F, Karaoz S, Mumcu E (2004) Effect of chronic fluorosis on lipid peroxidation and histology of kidney tissues in first-and second-generation rats. Biol Trace Elem Res 102:199–208CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ibarra-Santana C, Ruiz-Rodríguez Mdel S, Fonseca-Leal Mdel P, Gutiérrez-Cantú FJ, Pozos-Guillén AJ (2007) Enamel hypoplasia in children with renal disease in a fluoridated area. J Clin Pediatr Dent 31:274–278CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Barbier O, Arreola-Mendoza L, Del RL (2010) Molecular mechanisms of fluoride toxicity. Chem Biol Interact 188:319–333CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nabavi SF, Moghaddam AH, Eslami S, Nabavi SM (2012) Protective effects of curcumin against sodium fluoride-induced toxicity in rat kidneys. Biol Trace Elem Res 145:369–374CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wright CE, Tallan HH, Lin YY (1986) Taurine: biological update. Annu Rev Biochem 55:427–453CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Huxtable RJ (1992) Physiological actions of taurine. Physiol Rev 72:101–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Das J, Roy A, Sil PC (2012) Mechanism of the protective action of taurine in toxin and drug induced organ pathophysiology and diabetic complications: a review. Food Funct 3:1251–1264CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Das J, Sil PC (2012) Taurine ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetic renal injury, oxidative stress-related signaling pathways and apoptosis in rats. Amino Acids 43:1509–1523CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chattopadhyay A, Podder S, Agarwal S, Bhattacharya S (2011) Fluoride-induced histopathology and synthesis of stress protein in liver and kidney of mice. Arch Toxicol 85:327–335CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Das J, Ghosh J, Manna P, Sil PC (2012) Taurine protects rat testes against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress as well as p53, Fas and caspase 12-mediated apoptosis. Amino Acids 42:1839–1855CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lowry OH, Rosenbrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193:265–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jollow DJ, Mitchell JR, Zampaglione N, Gillette JR (1974) Bromobenzene induced liver necrosis: protective role of glutathione and evidence for 3,4 bromobenzene oxide as the hepatotoxic metabolite. Pharmacology 11:151–169CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wolff SP (1994) Ferrous ion oxidation in the presence of ferric ion indicator xylenol orange for measurement of hydroperoxides. Methods Enzymol 233:182–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Farombi EO, Tahnteng JG, Agboola AO, Nwankwo JO, Emerole GO (2000) Chemoprevention of 2-acetylaminofluorene-induced hepatotoxicity and lipid peroxidation in rats by kolaviron-a Garcinia kola seed extract. Food Chem Toxicol 38:535–541CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Misra HP, Fridovich I (1972) The role of superoxide anion in the autooxidation of epinephrine and a simple assay for superoxide dismutase. J Biol Chem 247:3170–3175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Clairborne A (1995) Catalase activity. In: Greewald AR (ed) Handbook of methods for oxygen radical research. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 237–242Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Habig WH, Pabst MJ, Jakoby WB (1974) Glutathione S-transferase. The first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. J Biol Chem 249:7130–7139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rotruck JT, Pope AL, Ganther HE, Swanson AB, Hafeman DG, Hoekstra WG (1973) Selenium: biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science 179:588–590CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bancroft JD. Gamble M. (2008). Theory and practice of histology techniques, 6th edition. Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, Pp 83–134.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Adedara IA, Abolaji AO, Odion BE, Okwudi IJ, Omoloja AA, Farombi EO (2014) Impairment of hepatic and renal functions by 2, 5-hexanedione is accompanied by oxidative stress in rats. J Toxicol 239240:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nabavi SM, Habtemariam S, Nabavi SF, Sureda A, Daglia M, Moghaddam AH, Amani MA (2013) Protective effect of gallic acid isolated from Peltiphyllum peltatum against sodium fluoride-induced oxidative stress in rat’s kidney. Mol Cell Biochem 372:233–239CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Den Hollander JG, Wulkan RW, Mantel MJ, Berghout A (2005) Correlation between severity of thyroid dysfunction and renal function. Clin Endocrinol 62:423–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gopinath B, Harris DC, Wall JR, Kifley A, Mitchell P (2013) Relationship between thyroid dysfunction and chronic kidney disease in community-dwelling older adults. Maturitas 75:159–164CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Montenegro J, Gonzalez O, Saracho R, Aguirre R, Gonzalez O, Martinez I (1996) Changes in renal function in primary hypothyroidism. Am J Kidney Dis 27:195–198CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wang H, Yang Z, Zhou B, Gao H, Yan X, Wang J (2009) Fluoride-induced thyroid dysfunction in rats: roles of dietary protein and calcium level. Toxicol Ind Health 25:49–57CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zhan XA, Wang M, Xu ZR, Li JX (2006) Toxic effects of fluoride on kidney function and histology in young pigs. Fluoride 39:22–26Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Podder S, Chattopadhyay A, Bhattacharya S (2008) In vivo suppression by fluoride of chromosome aberrations induced by mitomycin-c in mouse bone marrow cells. Fluoride 41:40–43Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Podder S, Chattopadhyay A, Bhattacharya S, Ray MR (2008) Differential in vivo genotoxic effect of lower and higher concentrations of fluoride in mouse bone marrow cells. Fluoride 41:301–307Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isaac A. Adedara
    • 1
    Email author
  • Temini Jesu D. Ojuade
    • 1
  • Bolanle F. Olabiyi
    • 1
  • Umar F. Idris
    • 1
  • Esther M. Onibiyo
    • 1
  • Olufunke F. Ajeigbe
    • 1
  • Ebenezer O. Farombi
    • 1
  1. 1.Drug Metabolism and Toxicology Research Laboratories, Department of Biochemistry, College of MedicineUniversity of IbadanIbadanNigeria

Personalised recommendations