Alterations in the trace element content can induce metabolic disorders as these elements are involved in the regulation of metabolism. Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and is more prevalent in Saudi Arabia, especially in women. This study explored the potential of alterations in hair trace elements as long-term markers in diabetic and/or obese Saudi females. In total, 65 diabetic obese women, 47 non-diabetic obese women, and 70 normal-weight women were recruited. Clinical and familial history and anthropometric variables were recorded. Hair Se, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe levels were analyzed. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and lipid profile were analyzed. Our findings revealed a marked decrease of hair Zn, Mn, and Fe and elevated Se and Cu levels in obese women. In addition, Zn and Fe levels were decreased in diabetic women. Thus, the metabolic distress occurring in obesity and hyperglycemia may affect trace element status by increasing the excretion and decreasing the bioavailability of trace elements or redistributing them among various pools. Hair trace elements can serve as important long-term markers for metabolic disorders; however, larger prospective studies are warranted to validate their diagnostic and follow-up utilities.
Hair Trace elements Obesity Diabetes mellitus Women Saudi Arabia
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
The authors thank the Institute of Scientific Research and Revival of Islamic Culture, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia, for funding this project (Project number 43209016).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Ethical considerations of this study were reviewed and approved by the research ethics committee at the Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
Informed consent was obtained from all participants. All participants were informed of the aim and procedures and were assured that they could discontinue their participation in the study without any effect on the medical care provided to them.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Al-Othaimeen A, Al-Nozha M, Osman A (2007) Obesity, an emerging problem in Saudi Arabia. analysis of data from the National Nutrition Survey. East Mediterr Health J 13:441–448PubMedGoogle Scholar
Al-Saleh E, Nandakumaran M, Al-Harmi J, Sadan T, Al-Enezi H (2006) Maternal-fetal status of copper, iron, molybdenum, selenium, and zinc in obese pregnant women in late gestation. Biol Trace Elem Res 113:113–123CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Regan L (1993) The design of metal binding sites in proteins. Ann Rev Biophys Biomol Struct 22:257–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Griffith H (1995) Complete guide to vitamins minerals and supplements. Fisher Books Company, New York, pp. 100–126Google Scholar
Pinhas-Hameil O, Newfield R, Koren I, Agmon A, Phillip M (2003) Greater prevalence of iron deficiency in overweight and obese children and adolescent. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27:416–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nead H, Halterman J, Kaczorowski J, Auinger P, Weitzman M (2004) Overweight children and adolescents: a risk group for iron deficiency. Pediatrics 114:104–108CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Korc M (1983) Manganese action on pancreatic protein synthesis in normal and diabetic rats. Am J Phys 245(5):628–634Google Scholar
Kazi T, Afridi H, Kazi N, Jamali M, Arain M, Jalbani N, Kandhro G (2008) Copper, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, and zinc levels in biological samples of diabetes mellitus patients. Biol Trace Elem Res 122:1–18CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Ozturk P, Kurutas E, Ataseven A, Dokur N, Gumusalan Y, Gorur A, Tamer L, Inaloz S (2014) BMI and levels of zinc, copper in hair, serum and urine of Turkish male patients with androgenetic alopecia. J Trace Elem Med Biol 28:266–270CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Steinbrenner H, Speckmann B, Pinto A, Sies H (2011) High selenium intake and increased diabetes risk: experimental evidence for interplay between selenium and carbohydrate metabolism. J Clin Biochem Nutr 48(1):40–45CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Wang C, Chang W, Jeng L, Liu L (2005) Concentrations of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium and zinc in young female hair with different body mass indexes in Taiwan. J Health Sci 51:70–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Groop LC (1999) Insulin resistance: the fundamental trigger of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab 1:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zargar A, Shah N, Masoodi S, Laway B, Dar F, Khan A, Sofi F, Wani A (2002) Copper, zinc and magnesium levels in type-1 diabetes mellitus. Saudi Med J 23:539–542PubMedGoogle Scholar
Skalnaya M, Demidov V (2007) Hair trace element contents in women with obesity and type 2 diabetes. J Trace Elem Med Biology 21:59–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Afridi H, Kazi T, Kazi N, Jamali M, Arain M, Jalbani N, Biag J, Sarfraz R (2008) Evaluation of status of toxic metals in biological samples of diabetes mellitus patients. Diabetes Res Clinic Pract 80:280–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang C, Huang C, Chou S, Lin C, Liau S, Wang R (1994) Studies on the concentrations of arsenic, selenium, copper, zinc and iron in the hair of blackfoot disease patients in different clinical stages. Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 32:107–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
Wang C, Chang W, Zeng W, Lin C (2005) Concentrations of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, potassium, sodium and zinc in adult female hair with different body mass indexes in Taiwan. Clin Chem Lab Med 43(4):389–393CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Chojnacka K, Zielinska A, Gorecka H, Dobrzanski Z, Gorecki H (2010) Reference value for hair minerals of Polish students. Env Toxicol Pharm 3:52–56Google Scholar
Mehra R, Juneja M (2005) Elements in scalp hair and nails indicating metal body burden in polluted environment. J Sci Ind Res 64:119–124Google Scholar
Viktorinova A, Toserova E, Krizko M, Durackova Z (2009) Altered metabolism of copper, zinc, and magnesium is associated with increased levels of glycated hemoglobin in patients with diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 58:1477–1482CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Anetor J, Senjobi A, Ajose O, Agbedana E (2002) Decreased serum magnesium and zinc levels: atherogenic implications in type-2 diabetes mellitus in Nigerians. Nutr Health 16:291–300CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar