Cadmium Levels in Tissue and Plasma as a Risk Factor for Prostate Carcinoma: a Meta-Analysis
- 397 Downloads
Cadmium is a heavy metal that has been suggested to be a carcinogen by evidence. A number of published studies have investigated the association between cadmium levels and prostate cancer, but the results were inconsistent. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to get a precise estimate of this subject. After a careful searching and screening, a total of 11 publications containing 14 separated studies were included. Based on a random-effect model, the pooled data showed that cadmium levels of prostate tissues (standard mean difference (SMD) = 3.17, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.60–5.74, P < 0.05) and plasma (SMD = 4.07, 95 % CI = 2.01–6.13, P < 0.05) were significantly higher in prostate cancer patients than those in the healthy controls. No difference of hair and nail cadmium levels between the prostate cancer cases and the controls was found. The data suggested that cadmium exposure might exert an influence on the tumorigenesis of prostate tissues. Future investigations with large sample sizes are needed to verify the results.
KeywordsCadmium Levels Prostate carcinoma Risk Meta-analysis
Compliance with Ethical Standard
The authors declared that they have no competing interests.
- 9.Hurst R, Hooper L, Norat T, Lau R, Aune D, Greenwood DC, Vieira R, Collings R, Harvey LJ, Sterne JA, Beynon R, Savovic J, Fairweather-Tait SJ (2012) Selenium and prostate cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 96(1):111–122. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.033373 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 25.Anetor JI, Ajose F, Anetor GO, Iyanda AA, Babalola OO, Adeniyi FA (2008) High cadmium/zinc ratio in cigarette smokers: potential implications as a biomarker of risk of prostate cancer. Niger J Phys Sci 23(1–2):41–49Google Scholar
- 33.Neslund-Dudas C, Mitra B, Kandegedara A, Chen D, Schmitt S, Shen M, Cui Q, Rybicki BA, Dou QP (2012) Association of metals and proteasome activity in erythrocytes of prostate cancer patients and controls. Biol Trace Elem Res 149(1):5–9. doi: 10.1007/s12011-012-9391-z CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 38.Ouyang S, Li S (2000) Investigation of trace elements in hair of patients with prostate carcinoma, benign prostatic hypertrophy, and normal controls. Bull Hunan Med Univ 25 (3)Google Scholar
- 48.Chen G, Wu L, Wu Y, Zhu J (2015) Content change of zinc and cadmium in serum of patients with prostate cancer and its clinical significance. J Clin Urol (China) 30(5):439–441Google Scholar
- 49.Caciari T, Sancini A, Fioravanti M, Capozzella A, Casale T, Montuori L, Fiaschetti M, Schifano MP, Andreozzi G, Nardone N, Tomei G, Ciarrocca M, Rosati MV, Tomei F (2013) Cadmium and hypertension in exposed workers: a meta-analysis. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 26(3):440–456. doi: 10.2478/s13382-013-0111-5 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 50.Rodriguez-Barranco M, Lacasana M, Aguilar-Garduno C, Alguacil J, Gil F, Gonzalez-Alzaga B, Rojas-Garcia A (2013) Association of arsenic, cadmium and manganese exposure with neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Total Environ 454–455:562–577. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.03.047 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 61.Tete N, Afonso E, Crini N, Drouhot S, Prudent AS, Scheifler R (2014) Hair as a noninvasive tool for risk assessment: do the concentrations of cadmium and lead in the hair of wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) reflect internal concentrations? Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 108:233–241. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.07.010 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar