Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 166, Issue 2, pp 173–182 | Cite as

Effects of Fluoride on DNA Damage and Caspase-Mediated Apoptosis in the Liver of Rats

  • Guo Hua SongEmail author
  • Fu Bing Huang
  • Ji Ping Gao
  • Mao Lin Liu
  • Wen Biao Pang
  • Wei bin Li
  • Xiao Yan Yan
  • Mei Jun Huo
  • Xia Yang


Fluoride compounds are abundant and widely distributed in the environment at a variety of concentrations. Further, fluoride induces toxic effects in target organs such as the liver. In this study, we investigated liver histopathology, DNA damage, apoptosis, and the mRNA and protein expressions of caspase-3 and −9 in the rat livers by administering varying concentrations of fluoride (0, 50, 100, 200 mg/L ) for 120 days. The results showed fluoride-induced morphological changes and significantly increased apoptosis and DNA damage in rats exposed to fluoride, especially in response to higher doses. The immunohistochemical and qRT-PCR results indicated that caspase-3, caspase-9 protein positive expression and mRNA relative expression enhanced with increasing NaF concentration. In summary, our findings suggest that chronic exposure to fluoride causes damages to liver histopathology and leads to liver apoptosis through caspase-mediated pathways.


Sodium fluoride Liver Apoptosis Caspase-3 Caspase-9 



This work was financed by grants from the China National Natural Science Foundation (No. 31302158), the Key Project of the Department of Medicine and Technology (No. 2011080), the Special Funds for Experimental Animal Technologies in Shanxi Province of China (No. 2012 K02), the Shanxi Province Science and Technology Bureau Program (No. 2011021030–1), and the Youth Fund Projects of Shanxi Medical University (No. 02201429).

Conflicts of Interest

No conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise are declared by the author(s).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guo Hua Song
    • 1
    Email author
  • Fu Bing Huang
    • 1
  • Ji Ping Gao
    • 1
  • Mao Lin Liu
    • 1
  • Wen Biao Pang
    • 1
  • Wei bin Li
    • 2
  • Xiao Yan Yan
    • 3
  • Mei Jun Huo
    • 4
  • Xia Yang
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory Animal Center, Shanxi Key Laboratory of Experimental Animal Science and Animal Model of Human DiseaseShanxi Medical UniversityTaiyuanChina
  2. 2.Insititute of Radiation Protection of ChinaTaiyuanChina
  3. 3.Department of BiologyTaiyuan Normal UniversityTaiyuanChina
  4. 4.Shanxi Key Laboratory of Ecological Animal Science and Environmental MedicineShanxi Agricultural UniversityTaiguChina

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