Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 159, Issue 1–3, pp 87–98 | Cite as

Thyroid Function and Serum Copper, Selenium, and Zinc in General U.S. Population

  • Ram B. JainEmail author


Association of the levels of serum selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) with thyroid function was assessed by analyzing data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the cycle 2011–2012. Thyroid function variables analyzed were as follows: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free and total triiodothyronine (FT3, TT3), free and total thyroxine (FT4, TT4), and thyroglobulin (TGN). Regression models with log-transformed values of thyroid hormones as independent variables and age, race/ethnicity, smoking and iodine sufficiency status, respondents’ education, and levels of Se, Zn, and Cu as dependent variables were fitted. For males, levels of Zn were associated with decreased levels of FT4 and TT4, and levels of Cu were associated with increased levels of FT4 and TT4. For females, levels of Cu were associated with increased levels of TT3 and TT4. Smoking was found to be associated with lower levels of TSH and higher levels of TGN in males. Smoking was found to be associated with lower levels of TT4 in females. Males had about 5–10 % higher levels of both Se and Zn, but as much as 20 % lower levels of Cu than females. Smoking was associated with lower levels of Zn, but higher levels of Cu in males.


Smoking Iodine sufficiency Trace elements 


Conflict of Interest

Author declares that he had no financial or other conflicts that could have affected the conclusions arrived at in this communication.

Supplementary material

12011_2014_9992_MOESM1_ESM.docx (26 kb)
Table S1 (DOCX 26 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LawrencevilleUSA

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