Thyroid Function and Serum Copper, Selenium, and Zinc in General U.S. Population
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Association of the levels of serum selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) with thyroid function was assessed by analyzing data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the cycle 2011–2012. Thyroid function variables analyzed were as follows: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free and total triiodothyronine (FT3, TT3), free and total thyroxine (FT4, TT4), and thyroglobulin (TGN). Regression models with log-transformed values of thyroid hormones as independent variables and age, race/ethnicity, smoking and iodine sufficiency status, respondents’ education, and levels of Se, Zn, and Cu as dependent variables were fitted. For males, levels of Zn were associated with decreased levels of FT4 and TT4, and levels of Cu were associated with increased levels of FT4 and TT4. For females, levels of Cu were associated with increased levels of TT3 and TT4. Smoking was found to be associated with lower levels of TSH and higher levels of TGN in males. Smoking was found to be associated with lower levels of TT4 in females. Males had about 5–10 % higher levels of both Se and Zn, but as much as 20 % lower levels of Cu than females. Smoking was associated with lower levels of Zn, but higher levels of Cu in males.
KeywordsSmoking Iodine sufficiency Trace elements
Conflict of Interest
Author declares that he had no financial or other conflicts that could have affected the conclusions arrived at in this communication.
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