Advertisement

Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 164, Issue 2, pp 178–184 | Cite as

Evaluated the Levels of Lead and Cadmium in Scalp Hair of Adolescent Boys Consuming Different Smokeless Tobacco Products with Related to Controls

  • Sadaf S. Arain
  • Tasneem G. KaziEmail author
  • Asma J. Arain
  • Hassan I. Afridi
  • Kapil D. Brahman
  • Naeemullah
  • Jamshed Ali
  • G. Zuhra Memon
Article

Abstract

The present study was aimed to evaluate the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in the scalp hair samples of adolescent boys age ranged 12–15 years, chewing different smokeless tobacco (SLT) products. For comparative purpose, boys of the same age group who did not consume any SLT products were selected as referents. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in SLT products and the scalp hair samples were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer (ETAAS) after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by certified reference materials (CRMs). The difference between experimental and certified values of both elements was not significant (p > 0.05). The resulted data indicated that the adolescent boys who consumed different SLT products have two- to threefold higher levels of Cd and Pb in the scalp hair samples as compared to the referent boys (p < 0.01). The adolescent chewing different SLT products have 82.2–110 and 60.6–94.5 % higher levels of Cd and Pb, respectively, in their scalp hair as related to the referents.

Keywords

Cadmium Lead Scalp hair Adolescents Smokeless tobacco 

References

  1. 1.
    Farrand P, Rowe RM, Johnston A, Murdoch H (2001) Community dentistry: prevalence, age of onset and demographic relationships of different areca nut habits amongst children in Tower Hamlets, London. Br Dent J 190:150–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kazi TG, Arain SS, Afridi HI, Naeemullah BKD, Kolachi NF, Mughal MA (2013) Analysis of cadmium, nickel, and lead in commercial moist and dry snuff used in Pakistan. Environ Monit Assess 185:5199–5208CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gupta PC, Ray CS (2003) Smokeless tobacco and health in India and South Asia. Respirology 8:419–431CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kazi TG, Wadhwa SK, Afridi HI, Kazi N, Kandhro GA, Baig JA, Shah AQ, Kolachi NF, Arain MB (2010) Interaction of cadmium and zinc in biological samples of smokers and chewing tobacco female mouth cancer patients. J Hazard Mater 176:985–991CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gupta PC, Ray CS (2004) Epidemiology of betel quid usage. Ann Acad Med Singap 33:31–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Elinder C (1991) Cadmium as an environmental hazard. IARC Sci Publ 118:123–132Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Miccadei S, Floridi A (1993) Sites of inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport by cadmium. Chem Biol Interact 89:159–167. doi: 10.1016/0009-2797(93)90006-K CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Verstraeten S, Aimo L, Oteiza P (2008) Aluminium and lead: molecular mechanisms of brain toxicity. Arch Toxicol 82:789–802. doi: 10.1007/s00204-008-0345-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jarosińska D, Peddada S, Rogan WJ (2004) Assessment of lead exposure and associated risk factors in urban children in Silesia, Poland. Environ Res 95:133–142. doi: 10.1016/S0013-9351(03)00139-7 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mansouri MT, Cauli O (2009) Motor alterations induced by chronic lead exposure. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 27:307–313CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lanphear BP, Hornung R, Khoury J, Yolton K, Baghurst P, Bellinger DC, Canfield RL, Dietrich KN, Bornschein R, Greene T, Rothenberg SJ, Needleman HL, Schnaas L, Wasserman G, Graziano J, Roberts R (2005) Low-level environmental lead exposure and children's intellectual function: an international pooled analysis. Environ Health Perspect 113:894–899CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Robertson PB, Walsh M, Greene J, Ernster V, Grady D, Hauck W (1990) Periodontal effects associated with the use of smokeless tobacco. J Periodontol 61:438–443CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chlopicka J, Zachwieja Z, Zagrodzki P, Frydrych J, Slota P, Krosniak M (1998) Lead and cadmium in the hair and blood of children from a highly industrial area in Poland. Biol Trace Elem Res 62:229–234CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chlopicka J, Zagrodzki P, Zachwieja Z, Krosniak M, Folta M (1995) Use of pattern recognition methods in the interpretation of heavy metal (lead and cadmium) in children's scalp hair. Analyst 120:943–945CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ghaedi M, Tavallali H, Montazerozohori M, Mousavi SD, Khodadoust S, Soylak M (2011) A novel nanometer pore size acorn based activated carbon modified with 2-(4-methoxybenzylideneamino) thiophenol for the preconcentration of copper and zinc ions and their determination in some food samples. Fresenius Environ Bull 20:2785–2793Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ghaedi M, Niknam K, Zamani S, Abasi Larki H, Roosta M, Soylak M (2013) Silica chemically bonded N-propyl kriptofix 21 and 22 with immobilized palladium nanoparticles for solid phase extraction and preconcentration of some metal ions. Mater Sci Eng C 33:3180–3189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ghaedi M, Montazerozohori M, Sajedi M, Roosta M, Nickoosiar Jahromi M, Asghari A (2013) Comparison of novel sorbents for preconcentration of metal ions prior to their flame atomic absorption spectrometry determination. J Ind Eng Chem 19:1781–1787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Arain SS, Kazi TG, Arain JB, Afridi HI, Brahman KD, Shah F, Naeemullah AS, Panhwar AH (2013) Simultaneous preconcentration of toxic elements in artificial saliva extract of smokeless tobacco product, mainpuri by cloud point extraction method. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 92:289–296CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Arain SS, Kazi TG, Arain JB, Afridi HI, Kazi AG, Nasreen S, Brahman KD (2014) Determination of nickel in blood and serum samples of oropharyngeal cancer patients consumed smokeless tobacco products by cloud point extraction coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21:12017–12027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Afridi HI, Kazi TG, Jamali MK, Kazi GH, Arain MB, Jalbani N, Shar GQ (2006) Analysis of heavy metals in scalp hair samples of hypertensive patients by conventional and microwave digestion methods. Spectrosc Lett 39:203–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Arain SS, Kazi TG, Afridi HI, Brahman KD, Shah F, Mughal MA (2014) Arsenic content in smokeless tobacco products consumed by the population of Pakistan: related health risk. J AOAC Int 97:1662–1669CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kazi TG, Afridi HI, Kazi GH, Jamali MK, Arain MB, Jalbani N (2006) Evaluation of essential and toxic metals by ultrasound-assisted acid leaching from scalp hair samples of children with macular degeneration patients. Clin Chim Acta 369:52–60CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Stepanov I, Hecht SS (2005) Tobacco-specific nitrosamines and their pyridine-N-glucuronides in the urine of smokers and smokeless tobacco users. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14:885–891CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Asta J, Guillard E, Tissut M, Gaude T, Ravanel P Heavy metal transfer from atmosphere to plants. In: Journal de Physique IV (Proceedings), 2003. EDP sciences, 65-68Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Weaver VM, Davoli CT, Murphy SE, Sunyer J, Heller PJ, Colosimo SG, Groopman JD (1996) Environmental tobacco smoke exposure in inner-city children. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 5:135–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Baars A, Theelen R, Janssen P, Hesse J, van Apeldoorn Mv, Meijerink Mv, Verdam L, Zeilmaker M (2001) Re-evaluation of human-toxicological maximum permissible risk levelsGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Joint F, Additives WECoF, Organization WH (2007) Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants: sixty-seventh report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food AdditivesGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Joint F, Additives WECoF, Organization WH (1989) Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants: thirty-third report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives [meeting held in Geneva from 21 to 30 March 1988].Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Olmedilla B, Granado F (2000) Growth and micronutrient needs of adolescents. Eur J Clin Nutr 54:S11–S15CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ghaedi M, Montazerozohori M, Heidarpour S, Noormohamadi HR, Asghari A, Soylak M (2013) Physical Modification of palladium and silver nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon with 2-(2-Nitrobenzylideneamino) thiophenol to preconcentrate and separate metal ions from food samples. Fresenius Environ Bull 22:3343–3351Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shah F, Kazi TG, Afridi HI, Khan S, Kolachi NF, Arain MB, Baig JA (2011) The influence of environmental exposure on lead concentrations in scalp hair of children in Pakistan. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 74:727–732CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bellinger DC (2008) Lead neurotoxicity and socioeconomic status: conceptual and analytical issues. Neurotoxicology 29:828–832CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Meyer I, Heinrich J, Lippold U (1999) Factors affecting lead, cadmium, and arsenic levels in house dust in a smelter town in eastern Germany. Environ Res 81:32–44CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Furman A, Laleli M (2000) Semi-occupational exposure to lead: a case study of child and adolescent street vendors in Istanbul. Environ Res 83:41–45CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ratzon N, Froom P, Leikin E, Kristal-Boneh E, Ribak J (2000) Effect of exposure to lead on postural control in workers. J Occup Environ Med 57:201–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Iwata T, Yano E, Karita K, Dakeishi M, Murata K (2005) Critical dose of lead affecting postural balance in workers. Am J Ind Med 48:319–325CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Min K-B, Min J-Y, Cho S-I, Kim R, Kim H, Paek D (2008) Relationship between low blood lead levels and growth in children of white-collar civil servants in Korea. Int J Hyg Environ Health 211:82–87CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Krejpdo Z, Olejnik D, Wójciak R, Gawecki J (1999) Comparison of trace elements in the hair of children inhabiting areas of different environmental pollution types. Pol J Environ Stud 8:227Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Torrente M, Colomina MT, Domingo JL (2005) Metal concentrations in hair and cognitive assessment in an adolescent population. Biol Trace Elem Res 104:215–221CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dongarra G, Varrica D, Tamburo E, D’Andrea D (2012) Trace elements in scalp hair of children living in differing environmental contexts in Sicily (Italy). Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 34:160–169CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hoffmann K, Becker K, Friedrich C, Helm D, Krause C, Seifert B (1999) The German Environmental Survey 1990/1992 (GerES II): cadmium in blood, urine and hair of adults and children. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 10:126–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ozden TA, Gökçay G, Ertem HV, Süoğlu ÖD, Kılıç A, Sökücü S, Saner G (2007) Elevated hair levels of cadmium and lead in school children exposed to smoking and in highways near schools. Clin Biochem 40:52–56CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sanna E, Liguori A, Palmas L, Soro MR, Floris G (2003) Blood and hair lead levels in boys and girls living in two Sardinian towns at different risks of lead pollution. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 55:293–299CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ferré-Huguet N, Nadal M, Schuhmacher M, Domingo JL (2009) Monitoring metals in blood and hair of the population living near a hazardous waste incinerator: temporal trend. Biol Trace Elem Res 128:191–199CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kazi TG, Shah F, Afridi HI (2013) Occupational and environmental lead exposure to adolescent workers in battery recycling workshops. Toxicol Ind Health 0748233713485883Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sadaf S. Arain
    • 1
  • Tasneem G. Kazi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Asma J. Arain
    • 2
  • Hassan I. Afridi
    • 1
  • Kapil D. Brahman
    • 1
  • Naeemullah
    • 1
  • Jamshed Ali
    • 1
  • G. Zuhra Memon
    • 3
  1. 1.National Center of Excellence in Analytical ChemistryUniversity of SindhJamshoroPakistan
  2. 2.Muhammad Medical College MirpurkhasHyderabadPakistan
  3. 3.Dr. M.A. Kazi Institute of ChemistryUniversity of SindhJamshoroPakistan

Personalised recommendations