Advertisement

Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 157, Issue 2, pp 101–106 | Cite as

Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Inflammatory Markers and Adipokines in Young Obese Women

  • Jihye KimEmail author
  • Juhee Ahn
Article

Abstract

Obesity is a chronic inflammatory state characterized by altered adipokine production and increased levels of inflammatory cytokines. The study explored the effect of zinc supplementation on inflammatory markers and adipocyte hormones in young obese women. Twenty five non-obese women and forty obese women (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) aged 19–28 years were recruited for this study. Twenty obese women of the study group took 30 mg/day of supplemental zinc as zinc gluconate for 8 weeks and 20 obese women of control group took placebo. Usual dietary zinc intake was estimated from 3-day diet records. Serum zinc and urinary zinc concentration were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Inflammatory markers such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-6 and adipocyte hormones such as lepin and adiponectin were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Inflammatory markers and leptin were significantly higher, but adiponectin was significantly lower in obese women than non-obese women. Zinc supplementation increased serum zinc by 15 % and urinary zinc by 56 % (P < 0.05). The levels of hs-CRP (P = 0.03) and IL-6 (P = 0.006) significantly decreased with zinc supplementation, but not in placebo group. Serum leptin and plasma adiponectin concentration did not differ with either zinc supplementation or placebo. The levels of IL-6 and leptin were inversely associated with dietary zinc intake. These results suggest that zinc may have a favorable effect on obesity-related inflammation in young adults.

Keywords

Inflammatory cytokine Zinc supplementation Adipocyte hormones Obese women 

Abbreviations

BMI

Body mass index

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

hs-CRP

High sensitivity C-reactive protein

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha

IL-6

Interleukin-6

Notes

Acknowledgment

This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) founded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (NRF2012R1A1A1012317).

Conflict of interest

None of the authors has a conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Hotamisligil GS (2006) Inflammation and metabolic disorders. Nature 444(7121):860–867PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Idriss HT, Naismith JH (2000) TNF alpha and the TNF receptor superfamily: structure–function relationship(s). Microsc Res Tech 50(3):184–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Marreiro DN, Geloneze B, Tambascia MA, Lerario AC, Halpern A, Cozzolino SM (2006) Effect of zinc supplementation on serum leptin levels and insulin resistance of obese women. Biol Trace Elem Res 112(2):109–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tungtrongchitr R, Pongpaew P, Phonrat B, Tungtrongchitr A, Viroonudomphol D, Vudhivai N, Schelp FP (2003) Serum copper, zinc, ceruloplasmin and superoxide dismutase in Thai overweight and obese. J Med Assoc Thai 86(6):543–551PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gaetke LM, McClain CJ, Talwalkar RT, Shedlofsky SI (1997) Effects of endotoxin on zinc metabolism in human volunteers. Am J Physiol 272(6 Pt 1):E952–E956PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bao B, Prasad AS, Beck FW, Fitzgerald JT, Snell D, Bao GW, Singh T, Cardozo LJ (2010) Zinc decreases C-reactive protein, lipid peroxidation, and inflammatory cytokines in elderly subjects: a potential implication of zinc as an atheroprotective agent. Am J Clin Nutr 91(6):1634–1641PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ho E, Courtemanche C, Ames BN (2003) Zinc deficiency induces oxidative DNA damage and increases p53 expression in human lung fibroblasts. J Nutr 133(8):2543–2548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Prasad AS, Bao B, Beck FW, Kucuk O, Sarkar FH (2004) Antioxidant effect of zinc in humans. Free Radic Biol Med 37(8):1182–1190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Prasad AS, Beck FW, Bao B, Fitzgerald JT, Snell DC, Steinberg JD, Cardozo LJ (2007) Zinc supplementation decreases incidence of infections in the elderly: effect of zinc on generation of cytokines and oxidative stress. Am J Clin Nutr 85(3):837–844PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shankar AH, Prasad AS (1998) Zinc and immune function: the biological basis of altered resistance to infection. Am J Clin Nutr 68(2 Suppl):447S–463SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kelishadi R, Hashemipour M, Adeli K, Tavakoli N, Movahedian-Attar A, Shapouri J, Poursafa P, Rouzbahani A (2010) Effect of zinc supplementation on markers of insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammation among prepubescent children with metabolic syndrome. Metab Syndr Relat Disord 8(6):505–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Korean Nutrition Society (2005) Dietary reference intake for Koreans. Kookjin Press, SeoulGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kim J, Jo I (2010) Relationship between body mass index and alanine aminotransferase concentration in non-diabetic Korean adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 64(2):169–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kim J, Paik HY, Joung H, Woodhouse LR, Li S, King JC (2004) Zinc supplementation reduces fractional zinc absorption in young and elderly Korean women. J Am Coll Nutr 23(4):309–315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Meret S, Henkin RI (1971) Simultaneous direct estimation by atomic absorption spectrophotometry of copper and zinc in serum, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Chem 17(5):369–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Koenig W, Lowel H, Baumert J, Meisinger C (2004) C-reactive protein modulates risk prediction based on the Framingham Score: implications for future risk assessment: results from a large cohort study in southern Germany. Circulation 109(11):1349–1353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Murakami M, Hibi M, Nakagawa N, Nakagawa T, Yasukawa K, Yamanishi K, Taga T, Kishimoto T (1993) IL-6-induced homodimerization of gp130 and associated activation of a tyrosine kinase. Science 260(5115):1808–1810PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ozata M, Mergen M, Oktenli C, Aydin A, Sanisoglu SY, Bolu E, Yilmaz MI, Sayal A, Isimer A, Ozdemir IC (2002) Increased oxidative stress and hypozincemia in male obesity. Clin Biochem 35(8):627–631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Costarelli L, Muti E, Malavolta M, Cipriano C, Giacconi R, Tesei S, Piacenza F, Pierpaoli S, Gasparini N, Faloia E, Tirabassi G, Boscaro M, Polito A, Mauro B, Maiani F, Raguzzini A, Marcellini F, Giuli C, Papa R, Emanuelli M, Lattanzio F, Mocchegiani E (2010) Distinctive modulation of inflammatory and metabolic parameters in relation to zinc nutritional status in adult overweight/obese subjects. J Nutr Biochem 21(5):432–437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    De Martin R, Hoeth M, Hofer-Warbinek R, Schmid JA (2000) The transcription factor NF-kappa B and the regulation of vascular cell function. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 20(11):E83–E88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bao S, Liu MJ, Lee B, Besecker B, Lai JP, Guttridge DC, Knoell DL (2010) Zinc modulates the innate immune response in vivo to polymicrobial sepsis through regulation of NF-kappaB. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 298(6):L744–L754PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Prasad AS, Bao B, Beck FW, Sarkar FH (2006) Correction of interleukin-2 gene expression by in vitro zinc addition to mononuclear cells from zinc-deficient human subjects: a specific test for zinc deficiency in humans. Transl Res 148(6):325–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Marreiro DN, Fisberg M, Cozzolino SM (2004) Zinc nutritional status and its relationships with hyperinsulinemia in obese children and adolescents. Biol Trace Elem Res 100(2):137–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Foster M, Samman S (2012) Zinc and regulation of inflammatory cytokines: implications for cardiometabolic disease. Nutrients 4(7):676–694PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Noh H (2013) The relationship among zinc nutritional status, αENaC A663T gene polymorphism and salty taste acuity in Korean young adults. Seoul National University, SeoulGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical Nutrition, Graduate School of East–West Medical ScienceKyung Hee UniversityYonginSouth Korea
  2. 2.Research Institute of Medical NutritionKyung Hee UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  3. 3.Department of Food and NutritionDaegu UniversityGyeongsanSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations