Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 156, Issue 1–3, pp 221–229 | Cite as

Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz)- and Mobile Phone (900 and 1800 MHz)-Induced Risks on Oxidative Stress and Elements in Kidney and Testis of Rats During Pregnancy and the Development of Offspring

  • Alper Özorak
  • Mustafa NazıroğluEmail author
  • Ömer Çelik
  • Murat Yüksel
  • Derviş Özçelik
  • Mehmet Okan Özkaya
  • Hasan Çetin
  • Mehmet Cemal Kahya
  • Seyit Ali Kose


The present study was designed to determine the effects of both Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz)- and mobile phone (900 and 1800 MHz)-induced electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on oxidative stress and trace element levels in the kidney and testis of growing rats from pregnancy to 6 weeks of age. Thirty-two rats and their 96 newborn offspring were equally divided into four different groups, namely, control, 2.45 GHz, 900 MHz, and 1800 MHz groups. The 2.45 GHz, 900 MHz, and 1,800 MHz groups were exposed to EMR for 60 min/day during pregnancy and growth. During the fourth, fifth, and sixth weeks of the experiment, kidney and testis samples were taken from decapitated rats. Results from the fourth week showed that the level of lipid peroxidation in the kidney and testis and the copper, zinc, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and total antioxidant status (TAS) values in the kidney decreased in the EMR groups, while iron concentrations in the kidney as well as vitamin A and vitamin E concentrations in the testis increased in the EMR groups. Results for fifth-week samples showed that iron, vitamin A, and β-carotene concentrations in the kidney increased in the EMR groups, while the GSH and TAS levels decreased. The sixth week results showed that iron concentrations in the kidney and the extent of lipid peroxidation in the kidney and testis increased in the EMR groups, while copper, TAS, and GSH concentrations decreased. There were no statistically significant differences in kidney chromium, magnesium, and manganese concentrations among the four groups. In conclusion, Wi-Fi- and mobile phone-induced EMR caused oxidative damage by increasing the extent of lipid peroxidation and the iron level, while decreasing total antioxidant status, copper, and GSH values. Wi-Fi- and mobile phone-induced EMR may cause precocious puberty and oxidative kidney and testis injury in growing rats.


Element Growing rat Kidney Mobile phone Oxidative stress Wi-Fi Testis 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alper Özorak
    • 1
  • Mustafa Nazıroğlu
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ömer Çelik
    • 2
  • Murat Yüksel
    • 3
  • Derviş Özçelik
    • 4
  • Mehmet Okan Özkaya
    • 3
  • Hasan Çetin
    • 5
  • Mehmet Cemal Kahya
    • 6
  • Seyit Ali Kose
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Urology, Faculty of MedicineSüleyman Demirel UniversityIspartaTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Biophysics, Faculty of MedicineSüleyman Demirel UniversityIspartaTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of MedicineSüleyman Demirel UniversityIspartaTurkey
  4. 4.Department of Biophysics, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicineİstanbul UniversityİstanbulTurkey
  5. 5.Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of MedicineSüleyman Demirel UniversityIspartaTurkey
  6. 6.Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicineİzmir Katip Çelebi UniversityİzmirTurkey

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