Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 152, Issue 1, pp 25–30

Dietary High Fluorine Induces Apoptosis and Alters Bcl-2, Bax, and Caspase-3 Protein Expression in the Cecal Tonsil Lymphocytes of Broilers

  • Juan Liu
  • Hengmin Cui
  • Xi Peng
  • Jing Fang
  • Zhicai Zuo
  • Hesong Wang
  • Bangyuan Wu
  • Yuanxin Deng
  • Kangping Wang


Long-term excessive fluoride intake is known to be toxic and can lead to fluorosis and bone pathologies. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying sodium fluoride-induced cytotoxicity in the cecal tonsil lymphocytes are not well understood. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of high dietary fluorine on apoptosis and the expression of the Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 in the cecal tonsil lymphocytes of broilers. The broilers were fed on high-fluorine diets containing 0, 400, 800, and 1,200 mg/kg fluorine. As measured by flow cytometry, the percentage of apoptotic lymphocytes was significantly increased in the high-fluorine groups II and III when compared with those in the control group. Meanwhile, immunohistochemical tests showed that the Bcl-2 protein expression decreased, and the Bax and caspase-3 protein expression increased in the high-fluorine groups II and III. In conclusion, dietary fluorine in the range of 800–1,200 mg/kg increased lymphocyte apoptosis in the cecal tonsil of broilers, suggesting that the lymphocyte apoptosis in the cecal tonsil was mediated by direct effects of fluoride on the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3.


Apoptosis Bax Bcl-2 Caspase-3 Cecal tonsil Flow cytometry (FCM) 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juan Liu
    • 1
  • Hengmin Cui
    • 1
  • Xi Peng
    • 1
  • Jing Fang
    • 1
  • Zhicai Zuo
    • 1
  • Hesong Wang
    • 1
  • Bangyuan Wu
    • 1
  • Yuanxin Deng
    • 1
  • Kangping Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Animal Diseases and Environmental Hazards of Sichuan Province, College of Veterinary MedicineSichuan Agricultural UniversityYa’anChina

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