Advertisement

Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 149, Issue 1, pp 34–41 | Cite as

Postmenopausal Vegetarians' Low Serum Ferritin Level May Reduce the Risk for Metabolic Syndrome

  • Mi-Hyun Kim
  • Yun Jung Bae
Article

Abstract

The present study was conducted to compare the serum ferritin status between the postmenopausal vegetarians and non-vegetarians and to identify the relation of serum ferritin with metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors in postmenopausal women. The two study groups consisted of postmenopausal vegetarians (n = 59) who maintained a vegetarian diet for over 20 years and age-matched non-vegetarian controls (n = 48). Anthropometric measurements, dietary intakes, serum metabolic syndrome-related parameters, and serum ferritin level between the two groups were compared. The vegetarians exhibited significantly lower weight (p < 0.01), body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.001), percentage of body fat (p < 0.001), waist circumference (p < 0.01), SBP (p < 0.001), DBP (p < 0.001), and fasting glucose (p < 0.05). According to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)—Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for MetS applying Korean guidelines for waist circumference, the prevalence of MetS was lower in vegetarians (33.9 %) than in non-vegetarians (47.9 %). Vegetarians had significantly lower serum level of ferritin (p < 0.01) than non-vegetarians. In the correlation analysis, serum ferritin was positively related to fasting glucose (r = 0.264, p < 0.01), triglycerides (r = 0.232, p < 0.05), and the NCEP score (r = 0.214, p < 0.05) and negatively related to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (r = −0.225, p < 0.05) after adjusting for BMI, lifestyle, and dietary factors (animal protein, animal fat, and dietary fiber intake). In conclusion, postmenopausal vegetarians had lower MetS presence and a lower serum ferritin level compared to non-vegetarians. Furthermore, vegetarians' low serum ferritin level may reduce the risk of MetS in postmenopausal women.

Keywords

Serum ferritin Metabolic syndrome Vegetarians Postmenopausal women 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to express our appreciation to Lavon Smith and Glenn Hawes for assistance in manuscript preparation.

Conflict of interest

This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

References

  1. 1.
    Reaven GM (1988) Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes 37:1595–1607PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ford ES, Giles WH, Dietz WH (2002) Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA 287:356–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gupta R, Deedwania PC, Gupta A, Rastogi S, Panwar RB, Kothari K (2004) Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in an Indian urban population. Int J Cardiol 97:257–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kim JA, Kim SM, Lee JS, Oh HJ, Han JH, Song Y, Joung H, Park HS (2007) Dietary patterns and the metabolic syndrome in Korean adolescents: 2001 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey. Diabetes Care 30:1904–1905PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kim HM, Park J, Ryu SY, Kim J (2007) The effect of menopause on the metabolic syndrome among Korean women: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001. Diabetes Care 30:701–706PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Park YW, Zhu S, Palaniappan L, Heshka S, Carnethon MR, Heymsfield SB (2003) The metabolic syndrome: prevalence and associated risk factor findings in the US population from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Arch Intern Med 163:427–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Park HS, Oh SW, Cho SI, Choi WH, Kim YS (2004) The metabolic syndrome and associated lifestyle factors among South Korean adults. Int J Epidemiol 33:328–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Amini M, Esmaillzadeh A, Shafaeizadeh S, Behrooz J, Zare M (2010) Relationship between major dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome among individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. Nutrition 26:986–992PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Key TJ, Davey GK, Appleby PN (1999) Health benefits of a vegetarian diet. Proc Nutr Soc 58:271–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lee HY, Woo J, Chen ZY, Leung SF, Peng XH (2000) Serum fatty acid, lipid profile and dietary intake of Hong Kong Chinese omnivores and vegetarians. Eur J Clin Nutr 54:768–773PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Szeto YT, Kwok TC, Benzie IF (2004) Effects of a long-term vegetarian diet on biomarkers of antioxidant status and cardiovascular disease risk. Nutrition 20:863–866PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Goff LM, Bell JD, So PW, Dornhorst A, Frost GS (2005) Veganism and its relationship with insulin resistance and intramyocellular lipid. Eur J Clin Nutr 59:291–298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Valachovicová M, Krajcovicová-Kudlácková M, Blazícek P, Babinská K (2006) No evidence of insulin resistance in normal weight vegetarians. A case control study. Eur J Nutr 45:52–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fernández-Real JM, Ricart-Engel W, Arroyo E, Balançá R, Casamitjana-Abella R, Cabrero D, Fernández-Castañer M, Soler J (1998) Serum ferritin as a component of the insulin resistance syndrome. Diabetes Care 21:62–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    González AS, Guerrero DB, Soto MB, Díaz SP, Martinez-Olmos M, Vidal O (2006) Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and the inflammation markers C-reactive protein and ferritin. Eur J Clin Nutr 60:802–809PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Martínez-García MA, Luque-Ramírez M, San-Millán JL, Escobar-Morreale HF (2009) Body iron stores and glucose intolerance in premenopausal women: role of hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and genomic variants related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and iron metabolism. Diabetes Care 32:1525–1530PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ford ES, Cogswell ME (1999) Diabetes and serum ferritin concentration among U.S. adults. Diabetes Care 22:1978–1983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Salonen JT, Tuomainen TP, Nyyssönen K, Lakka HM, Punnonen K (1998) Relation between iron stores and non-insulin dependent diabetes in men: case–control study. BMJ 317:727PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Acton RT, Barton JC, Passmore LV, Adams PC, Speechley MR, Dawkins FW, Sholinsky P, Reboussin DM, McLaren GD, Harris EL, Bent TC, Vogt TM, Castro O (2006) Relationships of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, and HFE mutations and self-reported diabetes in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) study. Diabetes Care 29:2084–2089PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sheu WH, Chen YT, Lee WJ, Wang CW, Lin LY (2003) A relationship between serum ferritin and the insulin resistance syndrome is present in non-diabetic women but not in non-diabetic men. Clin Endocinol (Oxf) 58:380–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shi Z, Hu X, Yuan B, Pan X, Meyer HE, Holmboe-Ottesen G (2006) Association between serum ferritin, hemoglobin, iron intake, and diabetes in adults in Jiangsu, China. Diabetes Care 29:1878–1883PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sun L, Franco OH, Hu FB, Cai L, Yu Z, Li H, Ye X, Qi Q, Wang J, Pan A, Liu Y, Lin X (2008) Ferritin concentrations, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly chinese. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:4690–4696PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kim CH, Kim HK, Bae SJ, Park JY, Lee KU (2011) Association of elevated serum ferritin concentration with insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism in Korean men and women. Metabolism 60:414–420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hallberg L (1981) Bioavailability of dietary iron in man. Annu Rev Nutr 1:123–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ball MJ, Bartlett MA (1999) Dietary intake and iron status of Australian vegetarian women. Am J Clin Nutr 70:353–358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Haddad EH, Berk LS, Kettering JD, Hubbard RW, Peters WR (1999) Dietary intake and biochemical, hematologic, and immune status of vegans compared with nonvegetarians. Am J Clin Nutr 70(suppl 3):S586–S593Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pongstaporn W, Bunyaratavej A (1999) Hematological parameters, ferritin and vitamin B12 in vegetarians. J Med Assoc Thai 82:304–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Thane CW, Bates CJ (2000) Dietary intakes and nutrient status of vegetarian preschool children from a British national survey. J Hum Nutr Diet 13:149–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wilson AK, Ball MJ (1999) Nutrient intake and iron status of Australian male vegetarians. Eur J Clin Nutr 53:189–194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Yen CE, Yen CH, Huang MC, Cheng CH, Huang YC (2008) Dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents in Taiwan. Nutr Res 28:430–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kim MH, Choi MK, Sung CJ (2007) Bone mineral density of Korean postmenopausal women is similar between vegetarians and nonvegetarians. Nutr Res 27:612–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Grundy SM, Brewer HB Jr, Cleeman JI, Smith SC Jr, Lenfant C (2004) Definition of metabolic syndrome: report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/American Heart Association conference on scientific issues related to definition. Circulation 109:433–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lee SY, Park HS, Kim SM, Kwon HS, Kim DY, Kim DJ, Cho GJ, Han JH, Kim SR, Park CY, Oh SJ, Lee CB, Kim KS, Oh SW, Kim YS, Choi WH, Yoo HJ (2006) Cut-off points of waist circumference for defining abdominal obesity in the Korean population. Korean J Obes 15:1–9Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Genuth S, Alberti KG, Bennett P, Buse J, Defronzo R, Kahn R, Kitzmiller J, Knowler WC, Lebovitz H, Lernmark A, Nathan D, Palmer J, Rizza R, Saudek C, Shaw J, Steffes M, Stern M, Tuomilehto J, Zimmet P, The Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus (2003) Follow-up report on the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 26:3160–3167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rizzo NS, Sabaté J, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Fraser GE (2011) Vegetarian dietary patterns are associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome: the Adventist Health Study 2. Diabetes Care 34:225–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Barr SI, Prior JC, Janelle KC, Lentle BC (1998) Spinal bone mineral density in premenopausal vegetarian and nonvegetarian women:cross-sectional and prospective comparisons. J Am Diet Assoc 98:760–765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sebeková K, Boor P, Valachovicová M, Blazícek P, Parrák V, Babinská K, Heidland A, Krajcovicová-Kudlácková M (2006) Association of metabolic syndrome risk factors with selected markers of oxidative status and microinflammation in healthy omnivores and vegetarians. Mol Nutr Food Res 50:858–868PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wolever TM, Jenkins DJ (1977) What is a high fiber diet? Adv Exp Med Biol 427:35–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Tupe R, Chiplonkar SA (2010) Diet patterns of lactovegetarian adolescent girls: need for devising recipes with high zinc bioavailability. Nutrition 26:390–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hua NW, Stoohs RA, Facchini FS (2001) Low iron status and enhanced insulin sensitivity in lacto-ovo vegetarians. Br J Nutr 86:515–519PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    MacKenzie EL, Iwasaki K, Tsuji Y (2008) Intracellular iron transport and storage: from molecular mechanisms to health implications. Antioxid Redox Signal 10:997–1030PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zimmermann MB, Hurrell RF (2007) Nutritional iron deficiency. Lancet 370:511–520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Milman N, Kirchhoff M (1992) Iron stores in 1359, 30- to 60-year-old Danish women: evaluation by serum ferritin and hemoglobin. Ann Hematol 64:22–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sullivan JL (2004) Is stored iron safe? J Lab Clin Med 144:280–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jian J, Pelle E, Huang X (2009) Iron and menopause: does increased iron affect the health of postmenopausal women? Antioxid Redox Signal 11:2939–2943PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Takahashi MM, de Oliveira EP, de Carvalho AL, de Souza Dantas LA, Burini FH, Portero-McLellan KC, Burini RC (2011) Metabolic syndrome and dietary components are associated with coronary artery disease risk score in free-living adults: a cross-sectional study. Diabetol Metab Syndr 3:7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    de Oliveira EP, Portero-McLellan KC, Silveira LV, Burini RC (2012) Dietary factors associated with metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adults. Nutr J 11:13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food and NutritionKangwon National UniversitySamcheokSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Food and Nutritional SciencesHanbuk UniversityDongducheonSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations