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Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 142, Issue 2, pp 174–189 | Cite as

Oxidative Injury in the Brain of mice Caused by Lanthanid

  • Haiquan Zhao
  • Zhe Cheng
  • Renping Hu
  • Jie Chen
  • Mengmeng Hong
  • Min Zhou
  • Xiaolan Gong
  • Ling Wang
  • Fashui HongEmail author
Article

Abstract

The organ toxicity of lanthanides (Ln) on organisms had been recognized, but very little is known about the oxidative injury of brain caused by Ln. In order to study the mechanisms underlying the effects of Ln on the brain, ICR mice were injected with a single 20 mg/kg body weight dose of LaCl3, CeCl3, and NdCl3 into the abdominal cavity daily for 14 days. We then examined the coefficient of the brain, the brain pathological changes and oxidative stress-mediated responses, and the accumulation of Ln and levels of neurochemicals in the brain. The results showed that CeCl3 and NdCl3 could induce some neurons to turn inflammatory cells and slight edema but did not observe the brain pathological changes from LaCl3-treated group. The concentrations of La, Ce, and Nd in the brain were significantly different and ranked in the order of Ce, Nd, and La. The injury of the brain and oxidative stress occurred as Ln appeared to trigger a cascade of reactions such as lipid peroxidation, the decreases of the total antioxidation capacity and activities of antioxidative enzymes, the excessive release of nitric oxide, the increase of glutamic acid, and the downregulated level of acetylcholinesterase activities. Furthermore, both Ce3+ and Nd3+ exhibited higher oxidative stress and toxicity on brain than La3+, and Ce3+ caused more severe brain injuries and oxidative stress than Nd3+, implying that the differences in the brain injuries caused by Ln might be related to the number of 4f electrons of Ln.

Keywords

Lanthanides Mice Brain Oxidative stress Neurochemicals 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant No. 30901218), the Bringing New Ideas Foundation of postgraduate of Medical College of Soochow University, the Medical Development Foundation of Soochow University (grant no.EE120701), and the National Bringing New Ideas Foundation of Student of China (grant no.57315427, 57315927).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haiquan Zhao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zhe Cheng
    • 1
  • Renping Hu
    • 1
  • Jie Chen
    • 1
  • Mengmeng Hong
    • 1
  • Min Zhou
    • 1
  • Xiaolan Gong
    • 1
  • Ling Wang
    • 1
  • Fashui Hong
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Medical College of Soochow UniversitySuzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.College of Life SciencesAnhui Agriculture UniversityHefeiPeople’s Republic of China

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