In Vitro Effects of Calcium Fructoborate upon Production of Inflammatory Mediators by LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages
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The present study is supported by our previous findings suggesting that calcium fructoborate (CF) has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Thus, we investigated the effects of CF on a model for studying inflammatory disorders in vitro represented by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. This investigation was performed by analyzing the levels of some mediators released during the inflammatory process: cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukins IL-1β and IL-6 as well as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the main enzyme responsible for endotoxin/LPS-induced prostaglandin synthesis by macrophages. We also measured production of nitric oxide (NO) that plays an important role in the cytotoxicity activity of macrophages towards microbial pathogens. After CF treatment of LPS-stimulated macrophages we found an up-regulation of TNF-α protein level in culture medium, no significant changes in the level of COX-2 protein expression and a decrease in NO production as well as in IL-1β and IL-6 release. Collectively, this series of experiments indicate that CF affect macrophage production of inflammatory mediators. However, further research is required in order to establish whether CF treatment can be beneficial in suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine production and against progression of endotoxin-related diseases.