Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 133, Issue 2, pp 203–211 | Cite as

Effects of Zinc Glycine Chelate on Growth, Hematological, and Immunological Characteristics in Broilers

  • J. Feng
  • W. Q. Ma
  • H. H. Niu
  • X. M. Wu
  • Y. Wang
  • J. Feng


Three hundred sixty healthy Ross×Ross 1-day-old broilers were used to study the effects of zinc glycine chelate (Zn-Gly) on growth performance, hematological, and immunological characteristics. All broilers were randomly assigned into six treatments. Diets were as follows: (1) control (containing 29.3 mg Zn kg−1 basic diet [0–3 weeks] and 27.8 mg Zn kg−1 [4–6 weeks]); (2) basic diet plus 30 mg Zn kg−1 from Zn-Gly; (3) basic diet plus 60 mg Zn kg−1 from Zn-Gly; (4) basic diet plus 90 mg Zn kg−1 from Zn-Gly; (5) basic diet plus 120 mg Zn kg−1 from Zn-Gly; (6) positive control, basic diet plus 120 mg Zn kg−1 from zinc sulfate (ZnSO4). After the 21- and 42-day feeding trials, the results showed that both of Zn-Gly and ZnSO4 could improve the growth performance of broilers, with the greatest average daily feed intake observed in the broilers fed 90 mg Zn kg−1 from Zn-Gly, but the greatest average daily gain observed with 120 mg Zn kg−1 from Zn-Gly (0–3 weeks) and 90 mg Zn kg−1 from Zn-Gly (4–6 weeks). Adding additional Zn-Gly improved the levels of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, and IgG) and the contents of total protein and Ca in serum and increased the immune organs index especially with 90 mg Zn kg−1 as Zn-Gly. However, there were no significant differences in responses to complements (C3 and C4) and albumin in serum among the treatments.


Zn-Gly ZnSO4 Growth Hematological Immunological Broiler 



This work was supported by Grant Agreement 2004CB117506, a Key Science Project “973” Award from the National Science and Technology Committee and also supported by Grant Agreement 2005C12010, a Key Science Project Award from the Zhejiang Province Science and Technology Committee, People's Republic of China. The authors would like to thank the Weifeng Bio. Corporation, China for providing the food-grade zinc glycine chelate for this research.


  1. 1.
    Keen CL, Gershwin ME (1990) Zinc deficiency and immune function. Annu Rev Nutr 10:415–431CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shankar AH, Prasad AS (1998) Zinc and immune function: the biological basis of altered resistance to infection. Am J Clin Nutr 68:447S–463SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ibs KH, Rink L (2003) Zinc-altered immune function. J Nutr 133:1452S–1460SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Donmez H, Donmez HH, Keskin E, Celik I (2002) Effects of zinc supplementation to ration on some hematological parameters in broiler chicks. Biol Trace Elem Res 87:125–131CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Burrell AL, Dozier WA 3rd, Davis AJ, Compton MM, Freeman ME, Vendrell PF, Ward TL (2004) Responses of broilers to dietary zinc concentrations and sources in relation to environmental implications. Br Poult Sci 45:255–263CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wedekind KJ, Hortin AE, Baker DH (1992) Methodology for assessing zinc bioavailability: efficacy estimated for zinc-methionine, zinc sulfate, and zinc oxide. J Anim Sci 70:178–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cao J, Henry PR, Guo R, Holwerda RA, Toth JP, Littell RC, Miles RD, Ammerman CB (2000) Chemical characteristics and relative bioavailability of supplemental organic zinc sources for poultry and ruminants. J Anim Sci 78:2039–2054PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Spears JW (1989) Zinc methionine for ruminants: Relative bioavailability of zinc in lambs and effects of growth and performance of growing heifers. J Anim Sci 67:835–843PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kidd MT, Ferket PR, Qureshi MA (1996) Zinc metabolism with special reference to its role in immunity. World's Poult Sci J 52:309–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kratzer FH, Vohra P (1986) Chelates in nutrition. CRC, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Feng J, Ma WQ, Xu ZR (2007) Effects of iron glycine chelate on growth, haematological and immunological characteristics in weaning pigs. Anim Feed Sci Technol 134:261–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    NRC (1994) Nutrient requirements of poultry, 9th edn. National Academies, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tiemann U, Brussow KP, Jonas L, Pohland R, Schneider F, Danicke S (2006) Effects of diets with cereal grains contaminated by graded levels of two Fusarium toxins on selected immunological and histological measurements in the spleen of gilts. J Anim Sci 84:236–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    SAS Institute (1988) SAS/STAT user's guide. SAS Institute, CaryGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sadoval M, Henry PR, Littell RC, Miles RD, Butcher GD, Ammerman CB (1999) Effect of dietary zinc source and method of oral administration on performance and tissue trace mineral concentration of broiler chicks. J Anim Sci 77:1788–1799PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stahl JL, Greger JL, Cook ME (1990) Breeding hen and progeny performance when hens are fed excessive dietary zinc. Poult Sci 69:259–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Roberson KD, Edwards HM (1994) Effects of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and phytase on zinc utilization in broiler chicks. Poult Sci 73:1312–1316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sandoval M, Henry PR, Luo XG, Littell RC, Miles RD, Ammerman CB (1998) Performance and tissue zinc and metallothionein accumulation in chicks fed a high dietary level of zinc. Poult Sci 77:1354–1363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sahin K, Kucuk O (2003) Zinc supplementation alleviates heat stress in laying Japanese quail. J Nutr 133:2808–2811PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rossi P, Rutz F, Anciuti MA, Rech JL, Zauk NHF (2007) Influence of graded levels of organic zinc on growth performance and carcass traits of broilers. J Appl Poult Res 16:219–225Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Swinkels JW, Kornegay ET, Verstegen MW (1994) Biology of zinc and biological value of dietary organic zinc complexes and chelates. Nutr Res Rev 7:129–149CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Park SY, Birkhold SG, Kubena LF, Nisbet DJ, Ricke SC (2004) Review on the role of dietary zinc in poultry nutrition, immunity, and reproduction. Biol Trace Elem Res 101:147–163CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dołęgowska B, Machoy Z, Chlubek D (2003) Changes in the content of zinc and fluoride during growth of the femur in chicken. Biol Trace Elem Res 91:67–76CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mocchegiani E, Muzzioli M, Giacconi R (2000) Zinc and immunoresistance to infection in aging: new biological tools. Trends Pharmacol Sci 21:205–208CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hostetler CE, Kincaid RL (2004) Gestational changes in concentrations of selenium and zinc in the porcine fetus and the effects of maternal intake of selenium. Biol Trace Elem Res 97:57–70CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Van den Broek AHM, Thoday KL (1986) Skin disease in dogs associated with zinc deficiency: a report of five cases. J Small Anim Pract 27:313–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hahn JD, Baker DH (1993) Growth and plasma zinc responses of young pigs fed pharmacologic levels of zinc. J Anim Sci 71:3020–3024PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wellinghausen N, Rink L (1998) The significance of zinc for leukocyte biology. J Leukoc Biol 64:571–577PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yu ZP, Le GW, Shi YH (2005) Effect of zinc sulphate and zinc methionine on growth, plasma growth hormone concentration, growth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor-I gene expression in mice. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 32:273–278CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mengheri E, Bises G, Gaetani S (1988) Differentiated cell-mediated immune response in zinc deficiency and in protein malnutrition. Nutr Res 8:801–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bartlett JR, Smith MO (2003) Effects of different levels of zinc on the performance and immunocompetence of broilers under heat stress. Poult Sci 82:1580–1588PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Beach RH, Gershwin ME, Hurley LS (1980) Impaired immunological ontogeny in postnatal zinc deprivation. J Nutr 110:805–810PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Burns RM (1983) Antibody production suppressed in the domestic fowl (Gallus domestics) by zinc deficiency. Avian Pathol 12:141–146CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Stahl JL, Cook ME, Sunde ML, Greger JL (1989) Enhanced humoral immunity in progeny chicks from hens fed practical diets supplemented with zinc. Appl Agric Res 4:86–89Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pimentel JL, Cook ME, Greger JL (1991) Immune response of chicks fed various levels of zinc. Poult Sci 70:947–954PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wellinghausen N, Kirchner H, Rink L (1997) The immunobiology of zinc. Immunol Today 18:519–521CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fraker PJ, King LE, Laakko T (2000) The dynamic link between the integrity of the immune system and zinc status. J Nutr 130(5S Suppl):1399S–1406SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Imboden JB, Weiss A, Stobo JD (1985) The antigen receptor on a human T cell line initiates activation by increasing cytoplasmic free calcium. J Immunol 134:663–665PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Feng
    • 1
  • W. Q. Ma
    • 1
  • H. H. Niu
    • 1
  • X. M. Wu
    • 2
  • Y. Wang
    • 1
  • J. Feng
    • 1
  1. 1.The Key Laboratory of Molecular Animal Nutrition, College of Animal ScienceZhejiang University, Ministry of EducationHangzhouChina
  2. 2.Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Bureau of Zhejiang ProvinceHangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations