Simultaneous Determination of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Se in Human Blood of Jordanian Smokers by ICP-OES

  • Adnan Massadeh
  • Ahmed Gharibeh
  • Khaled Omari
  • Idrees Al-Momani
  • Ahmed Alomari
  • Hiatham Tumah
  • Wail Hayajneh


A total of 73 blood samples (56 from smokers and 17 from nonsmokers) were collected to determine the concentrations of selected heavy metal in the whole blood of smokers and nonsmokers living in and around the city of Amman, Jordan. Analysis of heavy metals in the whole blood samples of various groups took in consideration the number of cigarettes smoked per day. The analysis of blood samples was carried out using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. This study aimed to evaluate the blood metal levels in smokers and nonsmokers and to assess the influence of smoking cigarettes on blood metal levels. The results were compared with those from a control group. The results indicated that the average concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) were 0.0313, 0.344, 2.328, 3.214, and 0.332 mg/L, respectively. Statistical analysis of results indicated that these average concentrations were significantly higher compared with the average concentrations in nonsmokers (P < 0.05). Moreover, the correlations between blood metal and other blood metal levels in smokers, the correlations between blood metal and other blood metal levels in nonsmokers, and the correlations between blood metal concentration in smokers and its concentration in nonsmokers were calculated. The standard reference material (blood serum National Institute of Standards and Technology 1598) and the quality control were used to validate the reliability of the method used for the estimation of heavy metals in blood samples. Results revealed that there was an agreement between the certified values and the measured values.


Metals Blood Smokers Analysis Monitoring ICP-OES 



The authors would like to thank Jordan University of Science and Technology for financial assistance, and for the Committee of Research on the Human, in particular Professor Dr. Hukum Al-Hadeedi, and we express our appreciation to the department of chemistry at Yarmouk University for cooperation to analyze the samples using ICP-OES. Many thanks are due to Al-Qodus Medical Laboratory, Amman, for cooperation and assistance during the collection of blood samples.


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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adnan Massadeh
    • 1
  • Ahmed Gharibeh
    • 2
  • Khaled Omari
    • 2
  • Idrees Al-Momani
    • 3
  • Ahmed Alomari
    • 3
  • Hiatham Tumah
    • 4
  • Wail Hayajneh
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Faculty of PharmacyJordan University of Science and TechnologyIrbidJordan
  2. 2.Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceJordan University of Science and TechnologyIrbidJordan
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceYarmouk UniversityIrbidJordan
  4. 4.Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of PharmacyJordan University of Science and TechnologyIrbidJordan
  5. 5.Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of MedicineJordan University of Science and TechnologyIrbidJordan

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