Effects of Selenium and L-Carnitine on Oxidative Stress in Blood of Rat Induced by 2.45-GHz Radiation from Wireless Devices

  • Nurhan Gumral
  • Mustafa Naziroglu
  • Ahmet Koyu
  • Kurtulus Ongel
  • Omer Celik
  • Mustafa Saygin
  • Mesud Kahriman
  • Sadettin Caliskan
  • Mustafa Kayan
  • Osman Gencel
  • Manuel F. Flores-Arce


The levels of blood lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, and vitamin C were used to follow the level of oxidative damage caused by 2.45 GHz electromagnetic radiation in rats. The possible protective effects of selenium and L-carnitine were also tested and compared to untreated controls. Thirty male Wistar Albino rats were equally divided into five groups, namely Groups A1 and A2: controls and sham controls, respectively; Group B: EMR; Group C: EMR + selenium, Group D: EMR + L-carnitine. Groups B–D were exposed to 2.45 GHz electromagnetic radiation during 60 min/day for 28 days. The lipid peroxidation levels in plasma and erythrocytes were significantly higher in group B than in groups A1 and A2 (p < 0.05), although the reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase values were slightly lower in erythrocytes of group B compared to groups A1 and A2. The plasma lipid peroxidation level in group A2 was significantly lower than in group B (p < 0.05). Erythrocyte reduced glutathione levels (p < 0.01) in group B; erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity in group A2 (p < 0.05), group B (p < 0.001), and group C (p < 0.05) were found to be lower than in group D. In conclusion, 2.45 GHz electromagnetic radiation caused oxidative stress in blood of rat. L-carnitine seems to have protective effects on the 2.45-GHz-induced blood toxicity by inhibiting free radical supporting antioxidant redox system although selenium has no effect on the investigated values.


2.45 GHz electromagnetic radiation Oxidative stress Glutathione peroxidase Vitamin C L-carnitine Selenium 


List of Abbreviations




electromagnetic radiation




glutathione peroxidase






lipid peroxidation




radio frequency


reactive oxygen species


specific absorption rate




superoxide dismutase


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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nurhan Gumral
    • 1
  • Mustafa Naziroglu
    • 2
  • Ahmet Koyu
    • 1
  • Kurtulus Ongel
    • 3
  • Omer Celik
    • 2
  • Mustafa Saygin
    • 1
  • Mesud Kahriman
    • 4
  • Sadettin Caliskan
    • 1
  • Mustafa Kayan
    • 5
  • Osman Gencel
    • 6
  • Manuel F. Flores-Arce
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of Physiology, Medical FacultySuleyman Demirel UniversityIspartaTurkey
  2. 2.Department of BiophysicsSuleyman Demirel UniversityIspartaTurkey
  3. 3.Family MedicineSuleyman Demirel UniversityIspartaTurkey
  4. 4.Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringSuleyman Demirel UniversityIspartaTurkey
  5. 5.Department of RadiologyIsparta State HospitalIspartaTurkey
  6. 6.Science Institute of Suleyman Demirel UniversityIspartaTurkey
  7. 7.Department of Chemical and Biochemical EngineeringTijuana Institute of TechnologyTijuanaMexico

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