Selenium, Lead, and Cadmium Levels in Renal Failure Patients in China
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Whole blood and serum samples of Chinese stable chronic renal failure (CRF) patients (n = 81), hemodialysis patients (n = 135), posttransplant patients (n = 60), and subjects with normal renal function (NRF; N = 42) were collected, as well as water and dialysate samples from five dialysis centers. The concentration of selenium (Se), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean serum Se levels in patients with different degrees of renal failure were significantly lower than those of subjects with NRF (p < 0.01). Pb levels were not increased in renal failure patients, while the Cd levels in patients with various degrees of renal failure were higher than in subjects with NRF (p < 0.05). After correcting the results of Pb and Cd for hematocrit (Hct) however, Pb levels of dialysis patients were also increased. In the dialysis population under study, blood Pb and Cd levels were closely related to the time on dialysis, while contamination of the final dialysate may also contribute to the increased blood Cd and to a less extent Pb levels. Correction for Hct may be recommended to accurately compare blood Pb and Cd levels in dialysis patients and CRF patients with varying degrees of anemia to those of subjects with NRF.
KeywordsTrace element Selenium Lead Cadmium Chronic renal failure Toxicity Dialysis
The authors are grateful to Dr Yun SUN (Jinan) and Dr Yan ZHANG (Yantai) in China for providing the samples and questionnaires. This research was performed in the frame of a coculture programme between China and Belgium and has been financed by the China Scholarship Council and the Department of Pathophysiology, University of Antwerp, Belgium. Bing Chen is a student of the Shandong University in China.
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