Evaluation of Iron in Serum and Urine and their Relation with Thyroid Function in Female Goitrous Patients

  • Ghulam Abbas KandhroEmail author
  • Tasneem Gul Kazi
  • Hassan Imran Afridi
  • Naveed Kazi
  • Mohammad Balal Arain
  • Raja Adil Sarfraz
  • Sirajuddin
  • Nasreen Syed
  • Jameel Ahmed Baig
  • Abdul Qadir Shah


In many developing countries, women are at high risk of goiter and iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Iron deficiency adversely affects thyroid metabolism and may decrease the efficiency of thyroid hormones in areas of endemic goiter. The aim of the present study was to compare the level of iron (Fe) in biological samples (serum and urine) and serum thyroid hormones, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and free thyroxin (FT4) of goitrous female patients (GFPs; n = 69) with those of nongoitrous women as control subjects (n = 117), age range 21–45 years. The biological samples were analyzed for Fe concentration using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer, prior to microwave-assisted wet acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the method was checked by the certified sample and with those obtained by conventional wet acid digestion method on the same CRM and real samples. The overall recoveries of Fe in serum and urine were found in the range of 97.2–98.6% of certified values. The results of this study showed that the mean values of Fe in serum and urine samples of GFPs were significantly reduced as compared to control subjects (p = 0.002 and p = 0.015, respectively). The mean values of FT3 and FT4 were found to be lower in GFPs than in the age-matched healthy control women; in contrast, high mean values of TSH were detected in GFPs (p = 0.003). There was a positive correlation between serum Fe concentration and TSH (r = 0.85, p = 0.01), FT3 (r = 0.95, p = 0.003), and FT4 levels (r = 0.98, p = 0.007) in GFPs. It was observed that iron deficiency is prevalent in GFPs, so the need of Fe supplementation will be required to improve the efficacy of thyroid metabolism in goitrous women.


Iron deficiency Goiter Female Serum Urine 



The authors would like to thank the Higher Education Commission Islamabad, Pakistan, for sponsoring this project.


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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ghulam Abbas Kandhro
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tasneem Gul Kazi
    • 1
  • Hassan Imran Afridi
    • 1
  • Naveed Kazi
    • 2
  • Mohammad Balal Arain
    • 1
  • Raja Adil Sarfraz
    • 1
  • Sirajuddin
    • 1
  • Nasreen Syed
    • 3
  • Jameel Ahmed Baig
    • 1
  • Abdul Qadir Shah
    • 1
  1. 1.Center of Excellence in Analytical ChemistryUniversity of SindhJamshoroPakistan
  2. 2.Liaqut University of Medical and Health SciencesJamshoroPakistan
  3. 3.Nuclear Institute of Medical Radiotherapy (NIMRA)JamshoroPakistan

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