Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 123, Issue 1–3, pp 14–26 | Cite as

Blood Levels of Lead, Cadmium, and Mercury in Residents of Tehran

  • Leila Farzin
  • Mojtaba Amiri
  • Hadi Shams
  • Mohammad Amin Ahmadi Faghih
  • Mohammad Esmail Moassesi
Article

Abstract

Monitoring of toxic trace elements for human blood has been of interest to researchers in the fields of environmental chemistry and medical science. The amount of blood toxic elements can reflect the disease state of the person or the environment where that person resides or works. Chronic, low-level exposure to toxic metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) is an increasing global problem. This study focuses on obtaining the usual value of Pb, Cd, and Hg in normal human blood. These elements were determined in 61 male and 40 female volunteers resident in Tehran (Iran). The subjects were non-drug abusers and aged 6–62 years old. Procedures were developed for the collection, storage, and preanalytical treatment of samples. The lead and cadmium were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and mercury was measured by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry technique. The blood levels of Pb, Cd, and Hg in normal volunteers living in Tehran were 123.75 ± 56.42, 1.82 ± 0.67, and 8.48 ± 4.42 μg/L. There was no significant gender-related difference in blood Cd and Hg concentrations (p < 0.06 and p < 0.41). However, the results indicated significantly higher content of Pb in blood of males compared to females (138.11 ± 65.43 and 101.84 ± 51.38 μg/L, respectively, p < 0.05).

Keywords

Toxic metals Atomic absorption spectrometry Blood Lead Cadmium Mercury 

References

  1. 1.
    Rivolta G, Nocoli E, Ferretti G, Tomasini M (1994) Hard metal lung disorders: analysis of a group of exposed workers. Sci Total Environ 150:161–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Weiner JA, Nylander M (1993) The relationship between mercury concentration in human organs and different predictor variables. Sci Total Environ 138:101–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yamamota Y, Ushiyama I, Nishi K (1997) Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in human organs. Curr Top Forensic Sci 1:73–76Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhuang GS, Wang YS, Tan MG, Zhi M, Pan WQ, Cheng YD (1990) Preliminary study of the distribution of the toxic elements As, Cd and Hg in human hair and tissue by RNAA. Biol Trace Elem Res 26:729–736PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Farsam H, Zamani M (1978) A survey on lead absorption in the employees of Tehran battery workshops, Iran. J Public Health 7:11–16Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bahrami AR, Mahjub H, Assari MJ (2002) A study of the relationship between ambient lead and blood bead among gasoline-station workers, Iran. J Public Health 31:92–95Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Meshgi P (1972) A survey on lead intoxication in lead miners, Iran. J Public Health 2:146–153Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tabrizizadeh M, Boozarjomehri F, Akhavan Karbasi MH, Maziar F (2006) Evaluation of the relationship between blood lead and prevalence of oral complications in Koushk lead mine workers, Yazd Province. J Dent Med 19:91–98Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zolfaghari G, Esmaili A, Ghasempouri SM, Faghihzadeh S (2007) Mercury accumulation in human hair and nails: amalgam fillings as an exposure factor. Tehran Univ Med J 65:78–83Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Karimi A, Moniri F, Nasihatkon A, Zarepoor MJ, Alborzi A (2002) Mercury exposure among residents of a building block in Shiraz, Iran. Environ Res 88:41–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zolfaghari G, Esmaili A, Ghasempouri SM, Faghihzadeh S (2007) Evaluation of environmental and occupational exposure to mercury among Iranian dentists. Sci Total Environ 381:59–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sachev H, Puri R, Bagga A, Choudhary P (1996) Principles of pediatric and neonatal emergencies. Jaypee Brothers, New Delhi, pp 284–287Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF (2007) Nelson textbook of pediatrics, vol. 1. 16th edn. Saunders, AmazonGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Landrigan PJ (1982) Occupational and community exposures to toxic metals: lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic. West J Med 137:531–539PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Plumbum WWT (1988) Karachi quo vadis. J Pak Med Assoc 3:227–228Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    World Health Organization (1996) Guidelines for drinking water quality, vol. 2. World Health Organization, Geneva, pp 195–201Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fiberg L, Nordberg G, Vouk V (1986) Handbook of the toxicology of metals, vol. 2. Elsevier, New York, pp 130–133Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Castelli M, Rossi B, Corsetti F, Mantovani A, Spera G, Lubrano C, Silvestroni L, Patriarca M, Chiodo F, Menditto A (2005) Levels of cadmium and lead in blood: an application of validated methods in a group of patients with endocrine/metabolic disorders from the Rome area. Microchem J 79:349–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    World Health Organization (1996) Trace elements in human nutrition and health. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nowa B (1998) Accumulation of metals in the teeth of inhabitant of towns in the South of Poland. J Trace Elem Med Bio 12:211–216Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Thomas R (1999) Choosing the right trace element technique. Chemist 8:42Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Maes M, Scharpe S, De Meester I, Goossens F, Wauters A, Neels H, Verkerk R, De Meyer F, Hondt P, Peeters D, Schotte C, Cosyns P (1994) Components of biological variation in propyl endopeptidase and peptidly peptidase IV activity in plasma of healthy subjects. Clin Chem 40:1686–1691PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    de la Dinamita C (1995) Determination of lead in blood—graphite furnace method atomic absorption spectroscopy. Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, SpainGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Moreira MR, Curtius AJ, de Campos RC (1995) Determination of cadmium in whole blood and urine by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using palladium based modifiers and in situ decontamination. Analyst 120:947–950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Denina J, Tsalev DV (1995) Hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hams GA (1997) Determination of mercury in blood by cold vapor AAS using the VGA-77. AA 126. Varian, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Powell ST, Bolisetty S, Wheaton GR (2006) Succimer therapy for congenital lead poisoning from maternal petrol sniffing. Med J Aust 184:84–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Batariova A, Spevackova V, Benes B, Cejchanova M, Smid J, Cerna M (2006) Blood and urine levels of Pb, Cd and Hg in the general population of the Czech Republic and proposed reference values. Int J Hyg Environ Health 209:359–366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Reis MF, Sampaio C, Brantes A, Aniceto P, Melim M, Cardoso L, Gabriel C, Simao F, Miguel JP (2007) Biomonitoring of Pb, Cd and Hg in blood of the general population. Int J Hyg Environ Health 210:439–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    McKelvey W, Gwynn RC, Jeffery N, Kass D, Thorpe LE, Garg RK, Palmer CD, Parsons PJ (2007) A biomonitoring study of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the blood of New York City adults. Environ Health Perspect 115:1435–1441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rahman S, Khalid N, Hussain Zaidi J, Ahmad S, Iqbal MZ (2006) Non-occupational lead exposure and hypertension in Pakistani adults. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 7:732–737PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Watanabe T, Iwani O, Shimbo S, Ikeda M (1993) Reduction in cadmium in blood and dietary intake among general populations in Japan. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 65:S205–S208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Olsson IM, Bensryde I, Lundh T, Ottosson H, Skerfving S, Oskarsson A (2002) Cadmium in blood and urine—impact of sex, age, dietary intake, iron status, and former smoking—association of renal effects. Environ Health Perspect 110:1185–1190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sisman AR, Bulbul M, Coker C, Onvural B (2003) Cadmium exposure in tobacco workers: possible renal effects. J Trace Elem Med Biol 17:51–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Samsam Shariat SZ (1999) Cadmium determination in Iranian-produced tobacco. Shahid Sadughi University of Medical Sciences, YazdGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Satarug S, Moore MR (2004) Adverse health effects of chronic exposure to low-level cadmium in foodstuffs. Environ Health Perspect 112:1099–1103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Khalik A (2004) Int’l tests show normal mercury level in Buyat Bay. The Jakarta Post, JakartaGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kermani M, Naddafi N, Shariat M, Mesbah AS (2003) Chemical composition of TSP and PM10 and their relations with meteorological parameters in the ambient air of Shariati Hospital District, Iran. J Public Health 32:68–72Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Primaneh H (2000) Air Quality Management in Tehran, 1–8Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bakhtirian A, Gholipour M, Ghazi-Khansari M (2001) Lead and cadmium content of Korbal rice in Northern Iran, Iran. J Public Health 30:129–132Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zazoli MA, Bazerafshani E, Hazrati A, Tavakkoli A (2006) Determination and estimation of cadmium intake from Tarom rice. J Appl Sci Environ Manage 10:147–150Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nadim N (1977) Study on mercury content of fish and seafood in Iran, Iran. J Public Health 6:166–178Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Farsam H, Zand N (1991) A preliminary study of lead deposition on plant leaves in Tehran, Iran. J Public Health 20:27–34Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Amini M, Afyuni M, Khademi H, Abbaspour KC, Schulinc R (2005) Mapping risk of cadmium and lead contamination to human health in soils of central Iran. Sci Total Environ 347:64–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Amini M, Afyuni M, Khademi H (2007) Modeling cadmium and lead balances in agricultural lands of Isfahan Region, Central Iran. J Sci Technol Agric Nat Resour 10:90–95Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leila Farzin
    • 1
  • Mojtaba Amiri
    • 1
  • Hadi Shams
    • 1
  • Mohammad Amin Ahmadi Faghih
    • 1
  • Mohammad Esmail Moassesi
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental Laboratory, Nuclear Science Research School, Nuclear Science & Technology Research InstituteAtomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI)TehranIran

Personalised recommendations