Advertisement

Response of Selenium Status Indicators to Supplementation of Healthy North American Men with High-Selenium Yeast

  • Wayne Chris Hawkes
  • B. Diane Richter
  • Zeynep Alkan
  • Elaine C. Souza
  • Monique Derricote
  • Bruce E. Mackey
  • Ellen L. Bonnel
Article

Abstract

The essential nutrient selenium is required in microgram amounts [recommended dietary allowance (RDA) = 55 μg/day, 699 nmol/day] and has a narrow margin of safety (upper tolerable intake limit = 400 μg/day, 5 μmol/day). We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled study of high-selenium yeast, the form used in most supplements (300 μg/day, 3.8 μmol/day), administered to 42 free-living healthy men for 48 weeks. Dietary intakes of selenium, macronutrients, and micronutrients were not different between groups and did not change during the study. Supplementation more than doubled urinary selenium excretion from 69 to 160 μg/day (876 to 2,032 nmol/day). Urinary excretion was correlated with recent selenium intake estimated from 3-day diet records: urinary selenium excretion = 42 μg/day (533 nmol/day) + 0.132 × dietary selenium intake, p < 0.001. Dietary selenium intake was not significantly correlated with the other indicators of selenium status, presumably because urinary selenium excretion reflected recent intake, and tissue selenium was homeostatically controlled. After 48 weeks of supplementation, plasma selenium was increased 60% from 142 to 228 μg/l (1.8 to 2.9 μmol/l), and erythrocyte selenium was approximately doubled from 261 to 524 μg/l (3.3 to 6.6 μmol/l). Selenium concentrations increased more modestly in hair (56%) and platelets (42%). Platelets were the only blood component in which glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly related to selenium content. Selenium levels decreased rapidly after the end of supplementation, and there were no significant differences in selenium status indicators between groups by week 96. The absorption, distribution, and excretion of selenium from high-Se yeast were similar to selenium in foods.

Keywords

Selenium supplementation Yeast Nutritional status Diet assessment 

Abbreviations

Se

selenium

RDA

recommended dietary allowance

UL

upper tolerable intake limit

NHANES

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Notes

Acknowledgments

US Department of Agriculture CRIS Project no. 5306-51530-009-00D supported this research. The authors gratefully acknowledge the excellent technical assistance of Manuel Tengonciang, Jerome Crawford, Sue Littlefield, Leslie Woodhouse, Katherine Parker, Evelyn Holguin and the Human Studies Unit of WHNRC for their assistance with the conduct of this study. Mention of trade name, proprietary product, or specific equipment does not constitute a guarantee or warranty by the US Department of Agriculture, nor does it imply approval to the exclusion of other products that may be suitable. The opinions expressed herein represent those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of the US Department of Agriculture.

References

  1. 1.
    Panel on Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds, Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients, Subcommittee on Interpretation and Uses of DRIs, Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board (2000) Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USAGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kryukov GV, Castellano S, Novoselov SV, Lobanov AV, Zehtab O, Guigo R, Gladyshev VN (2003) Characterization of mammalian selenoproteomes. Science 300:1439–1443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Swanson CA, Longnecker MP, Veillon C, Howe SM, Levander OA, Taylor PR, Mcadam PA, Brown CC, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC (1990) Selenium intake age gender and smoking in relation to indices of selenium status of adults residing in a seleniferous area. Am J Clin Nutr 52:858–862PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Longnecker MP, Taylor PR, Levander OA, Howe SM, Veillon C, Mcadam PA, Patterson KY, Holden JM, Stampfer MJ et al (1991) Selenium in diet, blood and toenails in relation to human health in a seleniferous area. Am J Clin Nutr 53:1288–1294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Combs GF Jr, Combs SB (1986) The role of selenium in nutrition. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USAGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Clark LC, Combs GF Jr, Turnbull BW, Slate EH, Chalker DK, Chow J, Davis LS, Glover RA, Graham GF, Gross EG, Krongrad A, Lesher JL Jr, Park HK, Sanders BB Jr, Smith CL, Taylor JR (1996) Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin. A randomized controlled trial. J Am Med Assoc 276:1957–1963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Blot WJ, Li JY, Taylor PR, Guo WD, Dawsey S, Wang GQ, Yang CS, Zheng SF, Gail M, Li GY, Yu Y, Liu BQ, Tangrea J, Sun YH, Liu FS, Fraumeni JF, Zhang YH, Li B (1993) Nutrition intervention trials in Linxian, China—supplementation with specific vitamin/mineral combinations, cancer incidence, and disease-specific mortality in the general population. J Natl Cancer Inst 85:1483–1492PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Blot WJ, Li JY, Taylor PR, Guo WD, Dawsey SM, Li B (1995) The Linxian trials: mortality rates by vitamin–mineral intervention group. Am J Clin Nutr 62:S1424–S1426Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yu SY, Zhu YJ, Li WG (1997) Protective role of selenium against hepatitis B virus and primary liver cancer in Qidong. Biol Trace Elem Res 56:117–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Geiger D (2004) Selenium Supplements. Newsday, May 15Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Friel H, Lederman H (2006) A nutritional supplement formula for influenza A (H5N1) infection in humans. Med Hypotheses 16:578–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Daniells S (2006) The supplements—bird flu debate: selenium. Nutraingredients.com, February 26Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Larsen EH, Hansen M, Paulin H, Moesgaard S, Reid M, Rayman M (2004) Speciation and bioavailability of selenium in yeast-based intervention agents used in cancer chemoprevention studies. J AOAC Int 87:225–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    U.S. Department of Agriculture (2005) USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 18. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Nutrient Data LaboratoryGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hawkes WC, Kutnink MA (1996) High-performance liquid chromatographic-fluorescence determination of traces of selenium in biological materials. Anal Biochem 241:206–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Paglia DE, Valentine WN (1967) Studies on the quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. J Lab Clin Med 70:158–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Drabkin D (1949) The standardization of hemoglobin measurement. Am J Med Sci 217:710–711Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193:265–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Box GEP, Hunter WG, Hunter JS (1978) Statistics for experimenters: An introduction to design, data analysis, and model building. Wiley, New York, pp 232–235Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Littell RC, Milliken GA, Stroup WW, Wolfinger RD (1996) SAS System for Mixed Models. SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USAGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bonferroni CE (1937) Teoria statistica delle classi e calcolo delle probabilita. In: Volume in Onore di Ricarrdo dalla Volta. Florence, Italy: Universita di Firenza, pp. 1–62Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kafai MR, Ganji V (2003) Sex, age, geographical location, smoking, and alcohol consumption influence serum selenium concentrations in the USA: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. J Trace Elem Med Biol 17:13–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ervin RB, Wang CY, Wright JD, Kennedy-Stephenson J (2004) Dietary intake of selected minerals for the United States population: 1999–2000. Adv Data 27:1–5Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Oster O, Schmiedel G, Prellwitz W (1988) The organ distribution of selenium in German adults. Biol Trace Elem Res 15:23–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rose A, Holbrook J, Lewis S, Craft N, Seidel K, Smith JC Jr (1986) Serum vs. plasma the effect of two anticoagulants on the concentration of selected nutritional and biochemical indices. 70th Annual Meeting Of The Federation Of American Societies For Experimental Biology, St. Louis, Mo., USA, Apr, 45:840Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Harris T (1988) Selenium: The Poisoning of America. Sacramento Bee. Sacramento, CA,pp. A1–A28Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fan AM, Book SA, Neutra RR, Epstein DM (1988) Selenium and human health implications in California’s San Joaquin valley USA. J Toxicol Environ Health 23:539–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Buzzard IM, Faucett CL, Jeffery RW, McBane L, McGovern P, Baxter JS, Shapiro AC, Blackburn GL, Chlebowski RT, Elashoff RM, Wynder EL (1996) Monitoring dietary change in a low-fat diet intervention study: advantages of using 24-hour dietary recalls vs food records. J Am Diet Assoc 96:574–579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Harris JA, Benedict FG (1919) Biometric studies of basal metabolism in man. Publication #297. Carnegie Institute of Washington, Washington, DC, USAGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Liu BS, Li SS (1987) Endemic selenosis and fluorosis. In: Combs GF Jr, Levander OA, Spallholz JE, Oldfield JE (eds) Selenium in biology and medicine, vol. B. Van Norstrand Reinhold, New York, pp 708–711Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Stratton MS, Reid ME, Schwartzberg G, Minter FE, Monroe BK, Alberts DS, Marshall JR, Ahmann FR (2003) Selenium and inhibition of disease progression in men diagnosed with prostate carcinoma: study design and baseline characteristics of the ‘Watchful Waiting’ Study. Anticancer Drugs 14:595–600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Aaseth J, Haugen M, Forre O (1998) Rheumatoid arthritis and metal compounds—perspectives on the role of oxygen radical detoxification. Analyst 123:3–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hawkes WC, Alkan FZ, Oehler L (2003) Absorption, distribution and excretion of selenium from beef and rice in healthy North American men. J Nutr 133:3434–3442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Levander OA, Sutherland B, Morris VC, King JC (1981) Selenium balance in young men during selenium depletion and repletion. Am J Clin Nutr 34:2662–2669PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sloth JJ, Larsen EH, Bugel SH, Moesgaard S (2003) Determination of total selenium and 77Se in isotopically enriched human samples by ICP-dynamic reaction cell-MS. J Anal At Spectrom 18:317–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rayman MP (2004) The use of high-selenium yeast to raise selenium status: how does it measure up? Br J Nutr 92:557–573PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kivits GA, Ganguli-Swarttouw MA, Christ EJ (1982) Influence of a low-selenium diet on erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and alkane production in exhaled air of rats as a measure of lipid peroxidation in vivo during growth. Biochim Biophys Acta 719:329–333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Glass M, Sutherland MW, Forman HJ, Fisher AB (1985) Selenium deficiency potentiates paraquat-induced lipid peroxidation in isolated perfused rat lung. J Appl Physiol 59:619–622PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lemoyne M, Van Gossum A, Kurian R, Jeejeebhoy KN (1988) Plasma vitamin E and selenium and breath pentane in home parenteral nutrition patients. Am J Clin Nutr 48:1310–1315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Matsuda A, Kimura M, Itokawa Y (1997) Selenium level and glutathione peroxidase activity in plasma, erythrocytes and platelets of healthy Japanese volunteers. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 43:497–504Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Brown KM, Pickard K, Nicol F, Beckett GJ, Duthie GG, Arthur JR (2000) Effects of organic and inorganic selenium supplementation on selenoenzyme activity in blood lymphoctyes, granulocytes, platelets and erythrocytes. Clin Sci (Lond) 98:593–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wood GP (1977) Urinary estrogens during late pregnancy: observations on the validity of “24-hour” urine collections and the estrogen/creatinine ratio. South Med J 70:959–962PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Longnecker MP, Taylor PR, Levander OA, Flack V, Veillon C, Mcadam PA, Patterson KY, Holden J, Stampfer MJ, Et AL (1991) Estimation of selenium intake from selenium in serum whole blood toenails or urine. 75th Annual Meeting Of The Federation Of American Societies For Experimental Biology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, April, 5Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wang M (1990) Geographical differentiation of selenium concentration in hair from children and youngsters in China. J Environ Sci 2:99–106Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Yang G, Gu L, Zhou R, Yin S (1988) Studies of human maximal and minimal safe intake and requirement of selenium. In: Wendel A (ed) Selenium in Biology and Medicine. Springer, Berlin, pp 223–228Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kvicala J, Zamrazil V, Cerovska J, Bednar J, Janda J (1995) Evaluation of selenium supply and status of inhabitants in three selected rural and urban regions of the Czech Republic. Biol Trace Elem Res 47:365–375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© U.S. Government 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wayne Chris Hawkes
    • 1
  • B. Diane Richter
    • 1
  • Zeynep Alkan
    • 1
  • Elaine C. Souza
    • 1
  • Monique Derricote
    • 1
  • Bruce E. Mackey
    • 2
  • Ellen L. Bonnel
    • 1
  1. 1.Western Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of AgricultureUniversity of California at DavisDavisUSA
  2. 2.Western Regional Research CenterARS, USDAAlbanyUSA

Personalised recommendations