Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 120, Issue 1–3, pp 28–35 | Cite as

Clinical Evaluation of the Bioavailability of Zinc-enriched Yeast and Zinc Gluconate in Healthy Volunteers

  • Thomas A. TompkinsEmail author
  • Nadine E. Renard
  • Akira Kiuchi


Zinc (Zn)-enriched yeast and gluconate are considered two of the more biologically available supplements. However, there have been few reports comparing the bioavailability of these supplements. The objective of this study was to demonstrate whether Zn was absorbed better by healthy male volunteers when given supplements where the mineral is found organically bound in yeast or as a salt gluconate form. The trial used a randomized, two-way crossover design. Urine, blood, and fecal samples were collected and analyzed over a 48-h period after a single dose of supplement. The net Zn balance and the relative bioavailability were calculated. No differences were observed in urine excretion of the two supplements. Zinc gluconate gave higher Zn concentrations in the blood in the first 6 h but also showed greater losses in the feces. Zinc yeast also increased in blood with time but showed significantly less loss in the feces. Thus, the net Zn balance after 48 h for Zn yeast was 9.46 but for Zn gluconate it was −2.00, indicating that Zn gluconate supplementation contributed to a net loss of Zn. It was concluded that organic Zn yeast supplements are more biologically available than Zn gluconate salts.


Zinc gluconate Zinc-enriched yeast Bioavailability Zinc absorption 



The authors wish to gratefully acknowledge the technical support staff from the Medical Corporation LTA (Souseikai Osaki Clinic); B. M. L. Association; and Japan Food Research Laboratories and Sogo Clinical Pharmacology Co., Ltd. In addition, they wish to acknowledge the financial support of Lallemand Inc. (Montreal, Canada) and Space-H Enterprise Ltd. (Tokyo, Japan).


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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas A. Tompkins
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nadine E. Renard
    • 2
  • Akira Kiuchi
    • 3
  1. 1.Institut Rosell-Lallemand Inc.MontrealCanada
  2. 2.Institut Rosell Inc.MontrealCanada
  3. 3.Miwa Seiyaku Co., Ltd.TokyoJapan

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