Advertisement

Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 120, Issue 1–3, pp 28–35 | Cite as

Clinical Evaluation of the Bioavailability of Zinc-enriched Yeast and Zinc Gluconate in Healthy Volunteers

  • Thomas A. TompkinsEmail author
  • Nadine E. Renard
  • Akira Kiuchi
Article

Abstract

Zinc (Zn)-enriched yeast and gluconate are considered two of the more biologically available supplements. However, there have been few reports comparing the bioavailability of these supplements. The objective of this study was to demonstrate whether Zn was absorbed better by healthy male volunteers when given supplements where the mineral is found organically bound in yeast or as a salt gluconate form. The trial used a randomized, two-way crossover design. Urine, blood, and fecal samples were collected and analyzed over a 48-h period after a single dose of supplement. The net Zn balance and the relative bioavailability were calculated. No differences were observed in urine excretion of the two supplements. Zinc gluconate gave higher Zn concentrations in the blood in the first 6 h but also showed greater losses in the feces. Zinc yeast also increased in blood with time but showed significantly less loss in the feces. Thus, the net Zn balance after 48 h for Zn yeast was 9.46 but for Zn gluconate it was −2.00, indicating that Zn gluconate supplementation contributed to a net loss of Zn. It was concluded that organic Zn yeast supplements are more biologically available than Zn gluconate salts.

Keywords

Zinc gluconate Zinc-enriched yeast Bioavailability Zinc absorption 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to gratefully acknowledge the technical support staff from the Medical Corporation LTA (Souseikai Osaki Clinic); B. M. L. Association; and Japan Food Research Laboratories and Sogo Clinical Pharmacology Co., Ltd. In addition, they wish to acknowledge the financial support of Lallemand Inc. (Montreal, Canada) and Space-H Enterprise Ltd. (Tokyo, Japan).

References

  1. 1.
    Maret W, Sandstead HH (2006) Zinc requirements and the risks and benefits of zinc supplementation. J Trace Elem Med Biol 20:3–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cuevas LE, Koyanagi A (2005) Zinc and infection: a review. Ann Trop Paediatr 25:149–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shah D, Sachdev HP (2006) Zinc deficiency in pregnancy and fetal outcome. Nutr Rev 64:15–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hughes S, Samman S (2006) The effect of zinc supplementation in humans on plasma lipids, antioxidant status and thrombogenesis. J Am Coll Nutr 24:285–291Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beletate V, El Dib R, Atallah A (2007) Zinc supplementation for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 24:CD005525Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Salgueiro MJ, Zubillaga MB, Lysionek AE, Sarabia MI, Caro RA, De Paoli T, Hager A, Ettlin E, Weill R, Boccio JR (2000) Bioavailability, biodistribution, and toxicity of BioZn-AAS; a new zinc source, comparative studies in rats. Nutrition 16:7623–766Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Neathery MW, Lassiter JW, Miller WJ, Gentry RP (1975) Absorption, excretion and tissue distribution of natural organic and inorganic zinc-65 in the rat. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 149:1–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vinson JA, Tompkins TA, Agbor GA (2007) Comparative bioavailability of mineral enriched gluconates and yeasts in rat liver following depletion–repletion feeding. Biol Trace Elem Res (in press)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vinson JA, Bose P, Lemoine L, Hsiao KH (1989) Comparative human bioavailability of zinc. In: Southgate D, Johnson I, Fenwick GR (eds) Nutrient availability: chemical and biological aspects. Royal Society of Chemistry Publications, Cambridge, England, pp 125–127Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fischer PWF, Giroux A, L’Abbe MR (1984) Effect of zinc supplementation on copper status in adult man. Am J Clin Nutr 40:743–746PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yadrick MK, Kennery MA, Winterfeldt EA (1989) Iron, copper, and zinc status: response to supplementation with zinc and iron in adult females. Am J Clin Nutr 49:145–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Spencer H, Kramer L, Osis D (1982) Zinc balances in humans. In: Prasad AS (ed) Clinical, biochemical and nutritional aspects of trace elements. Alan R. Liss, New York, NY, pp 103–115Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Camara F, Amaro MA (2003) Nutritional aspect of zinc availability. Int J Food Sci Nutr 54:143–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas A. Tompkins
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nadine E. Renard
    • 2
  • Akira Kiuchi
    • 3
  1. 1.Institut Rosell-Lallemand Inc.MontrealCanada
  2. 2.Institut Rosell Inc.MontrealCanada
  3. 3.Miwa Seiyaku Co., Ltd.TokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations