Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 118, Issue 1, pp 1–9 | Cite as

Associations of Calcium and Magnesium in Serum and Hair with Bone Mineral Density in Premenopausal Women

  • Chan Hee Song
  • Elizabeth Barrett-Connor
  • Ju Hye Chung
  • Sung Hyun Kim
  • Kyung Soo Kim


Background and Aims

Some minerals have been associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women or people with certain chronic diseases, but the results have been inconsistent. This study aimed to evaluate the association of serum and hair levels of calcium and magnesium with BMD in premenopausal women.


This cross-sectional study of 104 premenopausal volunteers recruited from out-patient clinics and a health promotion center in a university hospital in Seoul, Korea evaluated the association of serum and hair minerals with BMD in premenopausal women. All participants completed BMD measurements at the spine and hip and provided hair for calcium and magnesium analysis; blood was obtained from 68 of these participants for serum analysis.


Higher serum magnesium was associated with lower BMD at the spine (P = 0.047), but a higher hair magnesium was associated with higher BMD at the spine (P = 0.024). The ratio of serum calcium to magnesium was positively associated with BMD at the spine (P = 0.017).


Magnesium in serum and hair was associated with BMD in premenopausal women. The ratio of serum calcium to magnesium appears to be a significant indicator of BMD.


Hair Serum Mineral Bone mineral density 



This study was supported by a grant from the Korea Health 21 R&D Project, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea (project No. A060093). The authors would like to thank TEI Korea Co. for assistance with the analyses of hair and serum minerals.


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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chan Hee Song
    • 1
    • 2
  • Elizabeth Barrett-Connor
    • 2
  • Ju Hye Chung
    • 1
  • Sung Hyun Kim
    • 1
  • Kyung Soo Kim
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Family MedicineThe Catholic University of Korea, Kang Nam St. Mary’s HospitalSeoulKorea
  2. 2.Department of Family and Preventive MedicineSchool of Medicine, University of CaliforniaSan DiegoUSA

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