Advertisement

Major Phytoconstituents of Prunus cerasoides Responsible for Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Potential Against Some Reference Strains of Pathogenic Bacteria and Clinical Isolates of MRSA

  • Daljit Singh AroraEmail author
  • Himadri Mahajan
Article
  • 18 Downloads

Abstract

Prunus cerasoides is a traditionally well known for human health in various ways and particularly its bark is reported to possess high therapeutic applications in wound healing, foot and mouth disease, and indigestion etc. But there is scanty literature available on its systematic studies and phytoconstituents responsible for antimicrobial activity so the work is proposed. The main aim of this study is to reveal the phytoconstituents responsible for antimicrobial and antibiofilm action to demonstrate the effectiveness of such compounds by extrapolating the data using clinical isolates of pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, evaluation of P. cerasoides organic extract and phytoconstituents for their antimicrobial and antibiofilm potential against reference microbial strains was carried out. Antimicrobial potential was carried out using agar diffusion assay and biosafety of organic extract and its phytoconstituents was evaluated by MTT and Ames mutagenicity assay. Ethyl acetate was found to be the best organic extractant, where Klebsiella pneumoniae 1 (39.5 mm) and Staphylococcus aureus (22.5 mm) were the most sensitive microorganisms, respectively. Among the major phytoconstituents, flavonoids (14.5–33.5mm), diterpenes (14–28.7 mm), and cardiac glycosides (11.5–20.5mm) exhibited broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Ethyl acetate extract showed better potency with lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (0.1–10 mg/ml) than the most active partially purified phytoconstituents (0.5–10 mg/ml). Total activity potency for ethyl acetate extract ranged from 26.66–2666 ml/g and for flavonoids, it was 41–410 ml/g, thus considered as highly potent and bactericidal in nature as evidenced from VCC study. The major bioactive compounds were found to be biosafe. The most active phytoconstituents were found to have antibiofilm potential, as well as effective against clinical isolates of MRSA, thus, the findings indicate that P. cerasoides stem bark could be a potential source for development of broad-spectrum drugs against multidrug-resistant bugs.

Keywords

Antimicrobial Biosafety Medicinal plants Antibiofilm Partially purified phytoconstituents 

Notes

Authors Contribution

The practical work was carried out by HM. The data analysis and preparation of manuscript were equally contributed by both the authors DSA and HM.

Funding Information

The support offered to Himadri in the form of fellowship under university with potential for excellence (UPE) scheme of the UGC New Delhi assisted to the university.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

12010_2019_2985_MOESM1_ESM.docx (15 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 14 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Westh, H., Zinn, C. S., Rosdahl, V. T., & Group, S.S. (2004). An international multicenter study of antimicrobial consumption and resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from 15 hospitals in 14 countries. Microbial Drug Resistance, 10, 169–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Costerton, J. W., Stewart, P. S., & Greenberg, E. P. (1999). Bacterial biofilms: a common cause of persistent infections. Science, 284(5418), 1318–1322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Branda, S. S., Vik, A., Friedman, L., & Kolter, R. (2005). Biofilms: the matrix revisited. Trends in Microbiology, 13(1), 20–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hall-Stoodley, L., Hu, F. Z., Gieseke, A., & Nistico, L. (2006). Direct detection of bacterial biofilms on the middle-ear mucosa of children with chronic otitis media. Journal of the American Medical Association, 296(2), 202–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Francesca, S.L. (2011) Anti-microbial properties of Scutellaria baicalensis and Coptis chinensis, two traditional Chinese medicines. Bioscience Horizons 2011; 1; 119–127.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shingare, R. P., Nanekar, S. V., Thawale, P. R., Karthik, R., & Juwarkar, A. A. (2017). Comparative study on removal of enteric pathogens from domestic wastewater using Typha latifolia and Cyperus rotundus along with different substrates. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 19(10), 899–908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rani, P., & Khullar, N. (2004). Antimicrobial evaluation of some medicinal plants for their anti-enteric potential against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi. Phytotherapy Research, 18(8), 670–673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rios, J. L., & Recio, M. C. (2005). Medicinal plants and antimicrobial activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 100(1–2), 80–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Weimann, C., & Heinrich, M. (1997). Indigenous medicinal plants in Mexico: the example of the Nahua (Sierra de Zongolica). Pharmaceutical Biology, 110(1), 62–72.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Atindehou, K. K., Kone, M., Tenneaux, C., Traore, D., Hosterrman, K., & Doss, M. (2002). Evaluation of the antimicrobial potential of medicinal plants from the Ivory Coast. Phytotherapy Research, 16(5), 497–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Muthu, M., Gopal, J., Min, S. X., & Chun, S. (2016). Green tea versus traditional Korean teas: antibacterial/antifungal or both? Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 180(4), 780–790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rasooli, I., Shayegh, S., Taghizadeh, M., & Astaneh, S. D. A. (2008). Phytotherapeutic prevention of dental biofilm formation. Phytotherapy Research, 22(9), 1162–1167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Joseph, N., Anjum, N., & Tripathi, Y. C. (2016). Phytochemical screening and evaluation of polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity of Prunus cerasoides D. Don leaves. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 10, 502–508.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Arora, D. S., & Mahajan, H. (2017). In vitro evaluation and statistical optimization of antimicrobial activity of Prunus cerasoides stem bark. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 184(3), 821–837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Köck, R., Becker, K., Cookson, B., van Gemert-Pijnen, J. E., Harbarth, S., Kluytmans, J. A., Mielke, M., Peters, G., Skov, R. L., Struelens, M. J., & Tacconelli, E. (2010). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): burden of disease and control challenges in Europe. Eurosurveillance, 15(41), 19688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chatterjee, M., Anju, C. P., Biswas, L., Kumar, V. A., Mohan, C. G., & Biswas, R. (2016). Antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and alternative therapeutic options. International Journal of Medical Microbiology, 306(1), 48–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Arora, D. S., & Sood, H. (2017). In vitro antimicrobial potential of extracts and phytoconstituents from Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. leaves and their biosafety evaluation. AMB Express, 7(1), –115.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Onsare, J. G., & Arora, D. S. (2015). Antibiofilm potential of flavonoids extracted from Moringa oleifera seed coat against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 118(2), 313–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Arora, D. S., & Onsare, J. G. (2014a). Antimicrobial potential of Moringa oleifera seed coat and its bioactive phytoconstituents. Korean Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 42(2), 152–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Suzuki, H., Okubo, L., Yamazaki, S., Suzuki, K., Mitsuya, H., & Toda, S. (1989). Inhibition of the infectivity and cytopathic effect of the human immunodeficiency virus by water soluble lignin in an extract of the culture medium of Lentinus edodes mycelia (LEM). Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 160(1), 367–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mortelmans, K., & Zeiger, E. (2000). The Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay. Mutation Research, 455(1), 29–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ong, T. W., Hong, W. Z., Stewart, J. D., & Brockman, H. E. (1986). Chlorophyllin: a potent antimutagen against environmental and dietary complex mixtures. Mutation Research Letters, 173(2), 111–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Negi, P., Jayaprakasha, G., & Jena, B. S. (2003). Antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of pomegranate peel extracts. Food Chemistry, 80(3), 393–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Christensen, G. D., Simpson, W. A., Bisno, A. L., & Beachey, E. H. (1982). Adherence of slime producing strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis to smooth surfaces. Infection and Immunity, 37(1), 318–326.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stepanovic, S., Vukovi, D., Hola, V., Di Bonaventura, G., Djukić, S., Cirković, I., & Ruzicka, F. (2007). Quantification of biofilm in microtiter plates: overview of testing conditions and practical recommendations for assessment of biofilm production by Staphylococci. APMIS, 115(8), 891–899.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kumar, C. G., & Anand, S. K. (1998). Significance of microbial biofilms in food industry: a review. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 42(1), 9–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jadhav, S., Shah, R., Bhave, M., & Palombo, A. E. (2013). Inhibitory activity of yarrow essential oil on Listeria planktonic cells and biofilms. Food Control, 29(1), 125–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Djordjevic, D., Wiedmann, M., & McLandsborough, L. A. (2002). Microtiter plate assay for assessment of Listeria monocytogenes biofilm formation. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68(6), 2950–2958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dadawala, A. I., Chauhan, H. C., Patel, S. S., Singh, K., Rathod, P. H., & Shah, N. M. (2010). Assessment of Escherichia coli isolates for in vitro biofilm production. Veterinary World, 3(8), 364.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jin, Y., Yip, H. K., Samaranayake, Y. H., Yau, J. Y., & Samaranayake, L. P. (2003). Biofilm-forming ability of Candida albicans is unlikely to contribute to high levels of oral yeast carriage in cases of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 41(7), 2961–2967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Smith, K., & Hunter, L. S. (2008). Efficacy of common hospital biocides with biofilms of multi-drug resistant clinical isolates. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 57(8), 966–973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Baron, E.J.O., Peterson, L.R., & Finegold, S. M. (1994). Baily and Scott’s diagnostic microbiology, pp. 168–176, 9th. edn, Mosbey, Toronto.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mosmann, T. (1983). Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. Journal of Immunological Methods, 65(1-2), 55–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cowan, M. M. (1999). Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 12(4), 564–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pareke, J., & Chanda, S. (2007). In vitro screening of antibacterial activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of various Indian plant species against selected pathogens from Enterobacteriaceae. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 1, 92–99.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Linthoingambi, W., & Singh, M. S. (2013). Antimicrobial activities of different solvent extracts of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsely) A. Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research, 3(5), 50–54.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Arora, D. S., & Onsare, J. G. (2014b). In vitro antimicrobial potential, biosafety and bioactive phytoconstituents of Moringa oleifera stem bark. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 3, 2772–2788.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Alagesaboopathi, C. (2013). Evaluation of antibacterial properties of leaf and stem extracts of Andrographis elongata T. And.–an endemic medicinal plant of India. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 4(2), 503–510.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cushnie, T. P. T., & Lamb, J. A. (2005). Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 26(5), 343–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Vikram, A., Jayaprakasha, G. K., Jesudhasan, P. R., Pillai, S. D., & Patil, B. S. (2010). Suppression of bacterial cell-cell signalling, biofilm formation and type III secretion system by citrus flavonoids. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 109(2), 515–527.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Donlan, R. M. (2002). Biofilms: microbial life on surfaces. Emergent Infectious Disease, 8(9), 881–890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lee, J. H., Park, J. H., Cho, H. S., Joo, S. W., Cho, M. H., & Lee, J. (2013). Anti-biofilm activities of quercetin and tannic acid against Staphylococcus aureus. Biofouling, 29(5), 491–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Frank, J. F., & Koffi, R. A. (1990). Surface-adherent growth of Listeria monocytogenes is associated with increased resistance to surfactant sanitizers and heat. Journal of Food Protection, 53(7), 550–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Krysinski, E. P., Brown, L. J., & Marchisello, T. J. (1992). Effect of cleaners and sanitizers on Listeria monocytogenes attached to product contact surfaces. Journal of Food Protection, 55, 246–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Microbial Technology Laboratory, Department of MicrobiologyGuru Nanak Dev UniversityAmritsarIndia

Personalised recommendations