Homeologue Specific Gene Expression Analysis of Two Vital Carbon Metabolizing Enzymes—Citrate Synthase and NADP-Isocitrate Dehydrogenase—from Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Under Nitrogen Stress

Homeologue Specific gene expression of CS and NADP-ICDH
  • Gayatri
  • Manju Rani
  • Ajay Kumar Mahato
  • Subodh Kumar Sinha
  • Monika Dalal
  • Nagender Kumar Singh
  • Pranab Kumar MandalEmail author


Citrate synthase (CS) and NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH) have been considered as candidate enzymes to provide carbon skeletons for nitrogen assimilation, i.e., production of 2-oxoglutarate required by the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase cycle. The CS and NADP-ICDH cDNAs were encoded for polypeptides of 402 and 480 amino acids with an estimated molecular weight of 53.01 and 45 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.08 and 5.98, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of these proteins in wheat across kingdoms confirmed the close relationship with Aegilops tauschii and Hordeum vulgare. Further, their amino acid sequences were demonstrated to have some conserved motifs such as Mg2+ or Mn2 binding site, catalytic sites, NADP binding sites, and active sites. In-silico-identified genomic sequences for the three homeologues A, B, and Dof CS and NADP-ICDH were found to be located on long arm of chromosomes 5 and 3, and sequence analysis also revealed that the three homeologues consisted of 13 and 15 exons, respectively. The total expression analysis indicated that both genes are ubiquitously expressed in shoot and root tissues under chronic as well as transient nitrogen stress. However, they are differentially and contrastingly expressed but almost in a coordinated manner in both the tissues. Under chronic as well as transient stress, both the genes in shoot tissue showed downregulation, lowest at 6 h of transient stress. However, in the root tissue, trend was found opposite except with exceptions. Moreover, all the three homeologues of both the genes were transcribed differentially, and the ratio of the individual homeologues transcripts to total homeologues transcripts also varied with the tissue, i.e., shoots or roots, as well as with nitrogen stress treatments. Thus, cDNA as well as genomic sequence information, apparent expression at different time point of nitrogen stress, and coordination between these enzymes would be ultimately linked to nitrate assimilation and nitrogen use efficiency in wheat.


CS NADP-ICDH Nitrogen stress Gene expression Homeologues Wheat 



Authors would like to acknowledge the Project Director of ICAR-NRCPB, New Delhi for his support and encouragement at various levels to execute this work. For extraction of the genomic sequence information for this work, we gratefully acknowledge IWGSC. We are also thankful to Dr. Anju M. Singh, Division of Genetics, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, for providing HD-2967 seeds.

Funding Information

The present work was financially supported by CIMMYT under Wheat Competitive Grants fund.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gayatri
    • 1
  • Manju Rani
    • 1
  • Ajay Kumar Mahato
    • 1
  • Subodh Kumar Sinha
    • 1
  • Monika Dalal
    • 1
  • Nagender Kumar Singh
    • 1
  • Pranab Kumar Mandal
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.ICAR-National Research Centre on Plant BiotechnologyNew DelhiIndia

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