Upgrading Pectin Production from Apple Pomace by Acetic Acid Extraction
Pectin, as one of the most widely used functional polysaccharide, can be abundantly extracted from apple pomace which is the main by-product of apple juice industry. In the case of 110 min, 10% (w/w) acetic acid (AA), and 100 °C, extraction yield of pectin reached 19.6%. Compared with mineral acid-extracted pectin, the yield, molecular weight, galacturonic acid content, and DE of the AA-extracted pectin were higher while neutral sugars were lower. Furthermore, the AA-extracted pectin solution demonstrated a higher viscosity during the shear rate increased, and a higher G″ modulus than pectin extracted with mineral acid and commercial pectin possibly because of stronger polymer chain interaction, which was reflected in gel textural properties. The green approach for the pectin production, in terms of pectin components was developed from apple pomace using AA that was highly competitive and environmentally friendly process.
KeywordsPectin Apple pomace Acetic acid extraction Pectin composition Rheological properties
The research was supported by the China National Key R&D Plan (2016YFD0600803) and the Jiangsu Postgraduate Innovation Fund (SJZZ16-0161).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 7.Adetunji, L. R., Adekunle, A., Orsat, V., & Raghavan, V. (2017). Advances in the pectin production process using novel extraction techniques: a review. Food Hydrocolloids, 58, 171–178.Google Scholar
- 11.Srivastava, P., & Malviya, R. (2011). Sources of pectin, extraction and its applications in pharmaceutical industry - an overview. Indian Journal of Natural Product and Resources, 2, 10–18.Google Scholar
- 16.Nazaruddin, R., Noor Baiti, A. A., Foo, S. C., Tan, Y. N., & Ayob, M. K. (2013). Comparative chemical characteristics of hydrochloric acid- and ammonium oxalate-extracted pectin from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa l.) calyces. International Food Research Journal, 20, 281–284.Google Scholar
- 20.Sluiter, A., Hames, B., Ruiz, R., Scarlata, C., Sluiter, J., Templeton, D., and Crocker, D (2010) Determination of structural carbohydrates and lignin in biomass determination of structural carbohydrates and lignin in biomass, Natl Renew Energy Lab.Google Scholar
- 37.Chen, C., Zhang, B., Fu, X., You, L. J., Abbasi, A. M., & Liu, R. H. (2016). The digestibility of mulberry fruit polysaccharides and its impact on lipolysis under simulated saliva, gastric and intestinal conditions. Food Hydrocolloids, 62, 239–250.Google Scholar