Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

, Volume 187, Issue 2, pp 474–492 | Cite as

Removal of Fat Components in High TDS Leather Wastewater by Saline-Tolerant Lipase-Assisted Nanoporous-Activated Carbon

  • Maharaja Pounsamy
  • Swarnalatha Somasundaram
  • Saravanan Palanivel
  • Sekaran GanesanEmail author


The present investigation was carried out for the degradation of fatty components in high TDS containing wastewater (soak liquor) discharged from leather industry, and the degradation was achieved by saline-tolerant lipase-immobilized functionalized nanoporous-activated carbon (STLNPAC). The lipase was extracted from the halophilic organism, Bacillus cereus. The optimum conditions for lipase production such as time, 60 h; temperature, 50 °C; pH, 10; and substrate concentration, 2.5% (w/v) were determined through response surface methodology (RSM). The functionalization of NPAC was done by ethylenediamine/glutaraldehyde covalent interaction technique followed by the immobilization of saline-tolerant lipase onto FNPAC. The functional properties of STLNPAC were analyzed through instrumentation techniques such as TGA-DSC, FT-IR, XRD, and SEM images. The lipid content of soak liquor was removed by > 99% at HRT of 60 min using STLNPAC-packed bed reactor. The efficiency was evaluated by using UV-visible and FT-IR spectroscopic analyses. The degradation of lipids was best obeyed by pseudo first-order rate kinetics, and the rate constant was found to be 1.6 × 10−3 min−1. The biodegradability index of soak liquor was increased from 0.322 to 0.426, highly favorable for the complete removal of organic components in subsequent operations.


Saline wastewater Soak liquor Immobilization Fats Nanoporous-activated carbon Lipase Leather industry 



Chemical oxygen demand


Biochemical oxygen demand


Total dissolved solids


Total solids


Total suspended solids


American Public Health Association


Total organic carbon


Total Kjeldahl nitrogen


Thermo gravimetric analysis


Differential scanning colorimetry


Scanning electron microscopy


X-ray powder diffraction (XRD)


Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy


Ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry


Hydraulic retention time




Nanoporous-activated carbon


Functionalized nanoporous-activated carbon


Saline-tolerant lipase-immobilized nanoporous-activated carbon


Reverse osmosis


Common effluent treatment plant


Sequential oxic-anoxic bioreactor


Response surface methodology



The authors acknowledge Director, CSIR-CLRI, India, for granting permission to carry out this research work. This research work was carried out as a part of Ph.D. program registered with University of Madras, Chennai, India.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

We enclosed the revised manuscript entitled “Removal of fat components in high TDS leather wastewater by saline tolerant lipase assisted nanoporous activated carbon” which we are submitting for exclusive consideration of publication as an article in one of the most privileged journals “Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology.” The present work lies on the degradation of fat content of soak liquor discharged from leathery industries to increase the biodegradability index by using the efficient saline-tolerant lipase-immobilized nanoporous-activated carbon (STLNPAC) and the lipase was produced from halophilic organism Bacillus cereus. It would be the part of remediation for the disposal of hazardous contaminated salt eject from tanneries by way of effective treatment of high TDS containing tannery soak liquor.

All authors are aware of and agree to the content of the paper. We certify that the submission is our original work and not under review at any other publication. Considering the scientific merit, and novelty of the work, I would be happy and thankful if you can consider this manuscript for publication in the esteemed journal. In addition, all the authors of this manuscript wish and agree to submit the work to “Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology” declaring that the work has not been published/submitted or being submitted to another journal.

Supplementary material

12010_2018_2833_MOESM1_ESM.docx (416 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 416 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maharaja Pounsamy
    • 1
    • 2
  • Swarnalatha Somasundaram
    • 2
  • Saravanan Palanivel
    • 1
  • Sekaran Ganesan
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Leather Process Technology Lab, Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI)Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR)ChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Environmental Science and Engineering Division, Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI)Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR)ChennaiIndia

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