Arcopilus aureus, a Resveratrol-Producing Endophyte from Vitis vinifera
Resveratrol is extensively being used as a therapeutic moiety, as well as a pharmacophore for development of new drugs due to its multifarious beneficial effects. The objective of the present study was to isolate and screen the resveratrol-producing endophytic fungi from different varieties of Vitis vinifera. A total of 53 endophytic fungi belonging to different fungal genera were isolated from the stem and leaf tissues of Vitis vinifera (merlot, wild, pinot noir, Shiraz, muscat) from different grape-producing locations of India. Only 29 endophytic fungal isolates exhibited a positive test for phenolics by phytochemical methods. The resveratrol obtained after ethyl acetate extraction was confirmed using standard molecule on thin layer chromatography (TLC) with a retention factor (Rf) of 0.69. The purified and standard resveratrol were visualized under UV light as a violet-colored spot. In HPLC analysis of the ethyl acetate extract of culture broth of 11 endophytic isolates, the highest resveratrol content was found in #12VVLPM (89.1 μg/ml) followed by #18VVLPM (37.3 μg/ml) and 193VVSTPM (25.2 μg/ml) exhibiting a retention time of 3.36 min which corresponded to the standard resveratrol. The resveratrol-producing isolates belong to seven genera viz. Aspergillus, Botryosphaeria, Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternaria, Arcopilus, and Lasiodiplodia, and using morphological and molecular methods, #12VVLPM was identified as Arcopilus aureus.
KeywordsEndophyte Fungi Grapes Arcopilus sp. Resveratrol
The authors thank the Department of Biotechnology and TIFAC-CORE (Centre of Relevance and Excellence), Thapar Institute of Engineering & Technology, Patiala, Punjab, for providing the necessary infrastructure to carry out the research work.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 2.Jang, M. S., Cai, E. N., Udeani, G. O., Slowing, K. V., Thomas, C. F., Beecher, C. W. W., Fong, H. H. S., Farnsworth, N. R., Kinghorn, A. D., Mehta, R. G., Moon, R. C., & Pezzuto, J. M. (1997). Cancer chemopreventive activity of resveratrol, a natural product derived from grapes. Science, 275(5297), 218–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Suryanarayanan, T. S., Venkatesan, G., & Murali, T. S. (2003). Endophytic fungal communities in leaves of tropical forest trees: diversity and distribution patterns. Current Science, 85(4), 489–492.Google Scholar
- 18.Al-Jumaily, E. F. A., Hamid, G. S., & Ali, K. F. (2014). Synthesis and total phenol content of new resveratrol derivative. American Journal of Advanced Drug Discovery, (2–3), 320–329.Google Scholar
- 19.Park, J., & Boo, Y. C. (2013). Isolation of resveratrol from Vitis viniferae caulis and its potent inhibition of human tyrosinase. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Article ID 645257.Google Scholar
- 22.White, T. J., Bruns, T., Lee, S. J. W. T., & Taylor, J. W. (1990). Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In PCR Protocols: a Guide to Methods and Applications (Vol. 18, pp. 315–322).Google Scholar
- 25.Gonzalez-Coloma, A., Cosoveanu, A., Cabrera, R., Gimenez, C., & Kaushik, N. (2016). Endophytic fungi and their bioprospection. In S. K. Deshmukh, J. K. Misra, J. P. Tewari, & T. Papp (Eds.), Fungi: applications and management strategies (pp. 14–31). CRC Press.Google Scholar
- 27.Aly, A. H., Debbab, A., & Proksch, P. (2013). Fungal endophytes—secret producers of bioactive plant metabolites. An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 68(7), 499–505.Google Scholar
- 28.Kharwar, R. N., Kumar, A., Verma, V. C., & Redman, R. S. (2015). Book chapter Ajit Varma (Endophytes). Endophytic fungi: better players of biodiversity, stress tolerance, host protection and antimicrobial production. A textbook of molecular biotechnology, pp 1033–1057.Google Scholar
- 38.Mostert, L., Crous, P. W., & Petrini, O. (2000). Endophytic fungi associated with shoots and leaves of Vitis vinifera, with specific reference to the Phomopsis viticola complex. Sydowia, 52(1), 46–58.Google Scholar
- 39.Zeng, Q., Shi, J. L., & Liu, Y. L. (2012). Isolation and identification of a resveratrol-producing endophytic fungus from grape. Food Science, 33(13), 167–170.Google Scholar
- 41.Kharwar, R. N., Maurya, A. L., Verma, V. C., Kumar, A., GOND, S. K., & Mishra, A. (2012). Diversity and antimicrobial activity of Endophytic fungal community isolated from medicinal plant Cinnamomum camphora. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Sciences, 82(4), 557–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 43.Musetti, R., Vecchione, A., Stringher, L., Borselli, S., Zulini, L., Marzani, C., D’Ambrosio, M., di Toppi, L. S., & Pertot, I. (2006). Inhibition of sporulation and ultrastructural alterations of grapevine downy mildew by the endophytic fungus Alternaria alternata. Phytopathology, 96(7), 689–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 44.Casieri, L., Hofstetter, V. A. L. É. R. I. E., Viret, O. L. I. V. I. E. R., & Gindro, K. A. T. I. A. (2009). Fungal communities living in the wood of different cultivars of young Vitis vinifera plants. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 48(1), 73–83.Google Scholar
- 46.Saitou, N., & Nei, M. (1987). The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 4(4), 406–425.Google Scholar
- 47.Somrithipol, S. (2004). Coprophilous fungi. In E. B. G. Jones, M. Tanticharoen, & K. D. Hyde (Eds.), Thai fungal diversity (pp. 119–128). Thailand: BIOTEC.Google Scholar
- 48.Soytong, K., & Quimio, T. H. (1989). A taxonomic study on the Philippine species of Chaetomium. The Philippine agriculturist, 72(1), 59–72.Google Scholar