Drier Climatic Conditions Increase Withanolide Content of Withania coagulans Enhancing Its Inhibitory Potential Against Human Prostate Cancer Cells
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Prostate cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related deaths in men and there is a growing interest in identifying natural compounds for its management. We analyzed bioactive withanolides in Withania coagulans from 11 different sites in Pakistan and evaluated the antiprostate cancer activities of leaf extracts from two sites with the greatest amounts. Total withanolide concentration differed by ~ 17-fold between sites, ranging from 1.01 ± 0.01 mg/g dry weight (mean ± SE) at Jand to 16.83 ± 0.02 mg/g at Mohmand Agency. Different tissues varied in their total withanolide content with roots having the least (0.42 ± 0.07 mg/g dry weight) and leaves the most (2.45 ± 0.45 mg/g). We found strong inverse correlations between site annual precipitation versus withanolide amounts in fruits (r = − 0.84, P = 0.001), leaves (r = − 0.88, P < 0.001), roots (r = − 0.91, P < 0.001), and total (r = − 0.89, P < 0.001), but not stems (r = − 0.20, P = 0.556). Extracts made from Mianwali and Mohmand Agency leaves possessed high anticancer activity in terms of increased induction of apoptosis and decreased cell viability, cell proliferation, invasion, and migration of different prostate cancer cell lines. These results are useful for the selection of withanolide-rich germplasm with potent anticancer properties.
KeywordsProstate cancer Withania coagulans Withanolides Climatic conditions Ecotypes Anticancer properties
3-(45-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide
Mianwali leaf extract
Mohmand Agency leaf extract
High-performance liquid chromatography
Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry
The authors are very thankful to Dr. Hammad Ismail, Department of Biotechnology and Biochemistry for statistical help.
The Higher Education Commission of Pakistan provided funding for this research.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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