Advertisement

Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

, Volume 184, Issue 1, pp 350–365 | Cite as

Assessment of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Lignin from Corn Stover Residue Pretreated with Low-Moisture Anhydrous Ammonia and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Process

  • Mingming Guo
  • Tony Jin
  • Nhuan P. Nghiem
  • Xuetong Fan
  • Phoebe X. Qi
  • Chan Ho Jang
  • Lingxiao Shao
  • Changqing WuEmail author
Article

Abstract

Lignin accounts for 15–35% of dry biomass materials. Therefore, developing value-added co-products from lignin residues is increasingly important to improve the economic viability of biofuel production from biomass resources. The main objective of this work was to study the lignin extracts from corn stover residue obtained from a new and improved process for bioethanol production. Extraction conditions that favored high lignin yield were optimized, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the resulting lignin were investigated. Potential estrogenic toxicity of lignin extracts was also evaluated. The corn stover was pretreated by low-moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) and then subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using cellulase and hemicellulase. The residues were then added with sodium hydroxide and extracted for different temperatures and times for enhancing lignin yield and the bioactivities. The optimal extraction conditions using 4% (w/v) sodium hydroxide were determined to be 50 °C, 120 min, and 1:8 (w:v), the ratio between corn stover solids and extracting liquid. Under the optimal condition, 33.92 g of lignin yield per 100 g of corn stover residue was obtained. Furthermore, the extracts produced using these conditions showed the highest antioxidant activity by the hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The extracts also displayed significant antimicrobial activities against Listeria innocua. Minimal estrogenic impacts were observed for all lignin extracts when tested using the MCF-7 cell proliferation assay. Thus, the lignin extracts could be used for antioxidant and antimicrobial applications, and improve the value of the co-products from the biomass-based biorefinery.

Keywords

Corn stover Low-moisture anhydrous ammonia Lignin extracts Antioxidant activity Antimicrobial activity Estrogenic effects 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank Anita Parameswaran, Gerard E. Senske, Kimberly J. Sokorai, and Edward D. Wickham for their excellent technical assistance. This work was supported by the Northeast Sun Grant (Award No. 71012-10248) and partially by the National Science Foundation (Award No. 1506623). This project is part of the cooperative research and development agreement between University of Delaware and USDA-Agricultural Research Service (Agreement # 58-3K95-5-1719-M).

References

  1. 1.
    Dale, B. E., & Holtzapple, M. (2015). The need for biofuels. Chemical Engineering Progress, 111, 36–44.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Drapcho, C. M., Nhuan, N. P., & Walker, T. H. (2011). Biofuels engineering process technology. New York: Mc-Graw-Hill.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Perlack, R. D., Wright, L. L., Turhollow, A. F., Graham, R. L., Stokes, B. J., & Erbach, D. C. (2005). Biomass as feedstock for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry: the technical feasability of a billion-ton annual supply.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yoo, C. G., Nghiem, N. P., Hicks, K. B., & Kim, T. H. (2011). Pretreatment of corn stover using low-moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) process. Bioresource Technology, 102, 10028–10034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lavoie, J. M., Beauchet, R., Berberi, V., & Chornet, M. (2011). Biorefining lignocellulosic biomass via the feedstock impregnation rapid and sequential steam treatment. Biochemical Pharmacology, 27, 1697–1698.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vishtal, A., & Kraslawski, A. (2011). Challenges in industrial applications of technical lignins. BioResources, 6, 3547–3568.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ghaffar, S. H., & Fan, M. Z. (2013). Structural analysis for lignin characteristics in biomass straw. Biomass & Bioenergy, 57, 264–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Beauchet, R., Monteil-Rivera, F., & Lavoie, J. M. (2012). Conversion of lignin to aromatic-based chemicals (L-chems) and biofuels (L-fuels). Bioresource Technology, 121, 328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Li, J., Gellerstedt, G., & Kai, T. (2009). Steam explosion lignins; their extraction, structure and potential as feedstock for biodiesel and chemicals. Bioresource Technology, 100, 2556–2561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dizhbite, T., Telysheva, G., Jurkjane, V., & Viesturs, U. (2004). Characterization of the radical scavenging activity of lignins—natural antioxidants. Bioresource Technology, 95, 309–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nghiem, N. P., Senske, G. E., & Kim, T. H. (2016). Pretreatment of corn stover by low moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) in a pilot-scale reactor and bioconversion to fuel ethanol and industrial chemicals. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 179, 111–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Taylor, F., Kim, T. H., Goldberg, N. M., & Flores, R. A. (2007). Uniformity of distribution of anhydrous ammonia into shelled corn in a continuous ammoniator. Transactions of the ASABE, 50, 147–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dong, X., Dong, M. D., Lu, Y. J., Turley, A., Jin, T., & Wu, C. Q. (2011). Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of lignin from residue of corn stover to ethanol production. Industrial Crops and Products, 34, 1629–1634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pouteau, C., Dole, P., Cathala, B., Averous, L., & Boquillon, N. (2003). Antioxidant properties of lignin in polypropylene. Polymer Degradation & Stability, 81, 9–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Guo, M., Jin, T. Z., Yadav, M. P., & Yang, R. (2015). Antimicrobial property and microstructure of micro-emulsion edible composite films against Listeria. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 208, 58–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Farkas, T., Sestak, K., Wei, C., & Jiang, X. (2008). Characterization of a rhesus monkey Calicivirus representing a new genus of Caliciviridae. Journal of Virology, 82, 5408–5416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lou, F., Neetoo, H., Chen, H., & Li, J. (2011). Inactivation of a human norovirus surrogate by high-pressure processing: effectiveness, mechanism, and potential application in the fresh produce industry. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77, 1862–1871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wu, C., Duckett, S. K., Fontenot, J. P., & Clapham, W. M. (2008). Influence of finishing systems on hydrophilic and lipophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) in beef. Meat Science, 80, 662–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Li, J., Lee, L., Gong, Y., Shen, P., Wong, S. P., Wise, S. D., & Yong, E. L. (2009). Bioassays for estrogenic activity: development and validation of estrogen receptor (ERa/ERb) and breast cancer proliferation bioassays to measure serum estrogenic activity in clinical studies. Assay and Drug Development Technologies, 7, 80–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pan, X., Kadla, J. F., Ehara, K., Neil Gilkes, A., & Saddler, J. N. (2006). Organosolv ethanol lignin from hybrid poplar as a radical scavenger: relationship between lignin structure, extraction conditions, and antioxidant activity. Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry, 54, 5806–5813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ruckman, S. A., Rocabayera, X., Borzelleca, J. F., & Sandusky, C. B. (2004). Toxicological and metabolic investigations of the safety of N-a-Lauroyl-l- arginine ethyl ester monohydrochloride (LAE). Food Chemistry and Toxicology, 42, 245–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Núñezflores, R., Giménez, B., Fernándezmartín, F., Lópezcaballero, M. E., Montero, M. P., & Gómezguillén, M. C. (2013). Physical and functional characterization of active fish gelatin films incorporated with lignin. Food Hydrocolloids, 30, 163–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Von, S. M., Amr, P., & Jagus, R. J. (2011). Antioxidant and antimicrobial performance of different Argentinean green tea varieties as affected by whey proteins. Food Chemistry, 125, 186–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Su, X., Howell, A. B., & D’Souza, D. H. (2010). Antiviral effects of cranberry juice and cranberry proanthocyanidins on foodborne viral surrogates—a time dependence study in vitro. Food Microbiology, 27, 985–991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Harada, H., Sakagami, H., Nagata, K., Oh-Hara, T., Kawazoe, Y., Ishihama, A., Hata, N., Misawa, Y., Terada, H., & Konno, K. (1991). Possible involvement of lignin structure in anti-influenza virus activity. Antiviral Research, 15, 41–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Barapatre, A., Meena, A. S., Mekala, S., Das, A., & Jha, H. (2016). In vitro evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of lignin fractions extracted from Acacia nilotica. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 86, 443–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lrc, B., Xi, F., & Norris, J. Q. (1997). Antioxidant properties of phenolic lignin model compounds. Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology, 17, 73–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ogata, M., Hoshi, M., Shimotohno, K., Urano, S., & Endo, T. (1997). Antioxidant activity of Magnolol, honokiol, and related phenolic compounds. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 74, 557–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pandey, K. K. (1999). A study of chemical structure of soft and hardwood and wood polymers by FTIR spectroscopy. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 71, 1969–1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mingming Guo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tony Jin
    • 2
  • Nhuan P. Nghiem
    • 2
  • Xuetong Fan
    • 2
  • Phoebe X. Qi
    • 2
  • Chan Ho Jang
    • 1
  • Lingxiao Shao
    • 1
  • Changqing Wu
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Animal and Food SciencesUniversity of DelawareNewarkUSA
  2. 2.Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research CenterU.S. Department of AgricultureWyndmoorUSA

Personalised recommendations