Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

, Volume 182, Issue 4, pp 1290–1306 | Cite as

Free and Ca-Alginate Beads Immobilized Horseradish Peroxidase for the Removal of Reactive Dyes: an Experimental and Modeling Study

  • Simone Farias
  • Diego A. Mayer
  • Débora de OliveiraEmail author
  • Selene M. A. Guelli U. de Souza
  • Antônio Augusto Ulson de Souza


The aim of this work was to remove the dyes Reactive Blue 221 (RB 221) and Reactive Blue 198 (RB 198) of synthetic effluent using the immobilized enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in Ca-alginate beads. Experimental parameters affecting the dye removal process such as the effect of pH, temperature, hydrogen peroxide concentration, mass capsules, and reuse were evaluated, and a numerical model of mass transfer was developed. A maximum removal of 93 and 75%, respectively, for the dyes RB 221 and RB 198, at pH 5.5 and temperature of 30 °C, concentration of hydrogen peroxide of 43.75 μM for dye RB 221 and 37.5 μM for the dye of RB 198 was obtained. A removal reaction of 180 min for RB 221 and 240 min for RB 198 was observed. Three reuse cycles of use of immobilized enzyme were achieved for both dyes. The numerical model proposed led to a good fit compared to experimental data. The HRP enzyme immobilized in Ca-alginate capsules showed a great potential for biotechnological applications, especially for the removal of reactive dyes.


Horseradish peroxidase immobilization Ca-alginate beads Removal of reactive dye Kinetic constants Pore diffusion model 



Final absorbance (Ad)


Initial absorbance (Ad)

\( {C}_m^{\exp } \)

Experimental concentration from literature at point m

\( {C}_m^{num} \)

Numerical concentration at point m


Removal of dyes (%)


Effective diffusivity by product (m2 s−1)


Effective diffusivity by substrate (m2 s−1)


Enzyme (mg L−1)


Particle porosity (Ad)


Reactor porosity (Ad)


Enzyme-substrate complex (mg L−1)


Constant for substrate (mg L−1)


Rate constant (L mg−1 min−1)


Constant of equilibrium (Ad)


Mass transfer coefficient by substrate (m s−1)


Mass transfer coefficient by product (m s−1)


Michaelis-Menten constant for product (mg L−1)


The sampling point


Number of experimental points


Maximum reaction rate (min−1)


Product (mg L−1)


Concentration of product in the solid liquid phase (mg L−1)


Concentration of product in the bulk liquid phase (mg L−1)


Radial coordinate (m2 s−1)


Radius of particle (m)


Substrate (mg L−1)

Sb , o

Initial concentration of substrate in the bulk phase (mg L−1)


Concentration of substrate in the liquid bulk phase (mg L−1)


Apparent density of the particles (kg m−3)


Concentration of substrate in the liquid solid phase (mg L−1)


Time (min)


Reaction rate (min−1)



The authors would like to thank CNPq for the financial support given by way of the scholarship, LCME and Central Analysis of EQA at the Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC) by analyses of SEM and texture, respectively. Also would like thank Malwee and Toyobo do Brasil for supplying the dyes and HRP enzyme, respectively.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simone Farias
    • 1
  • Diego A. Mayer
    • 1
  • Débora de Oliveira
    • 1
    Email author
  • Selene M. A. Guelli U. de Souza
    • 1
  • Antônio Augusto Ulson de Souza
    • 1
  1. 1.Chemical and Food Engineering DepartmentFederal University of Santa CatarinaFlorianópolisBrazil

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