Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

, Volume 178, Issue 4, pp 619–639 | Cite as

Comparative Characterization of Aroma Volatiles and Related Gene Expression Analysis at Vegetative and Mature Stages in Basmati and Non-Basmati Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars

  • Vidya Hinge
  • Hemant Patil
  • Altafhusain NadafEmail author


Aroma volatiles in Basmati-370, Ambemohar-157 (non-basmati scented), and IR-64 (non-scented) rice cultivars were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed at vegetative and maturity stages to study their differential accumulation using headspace solid-phase microextraction, followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GCMS) with selected ion monitoring (SIM) approach. In addition, expression analysis of major aroma volatile 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP)-related genes, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (badh2) and Δ1-pyrolline-5-carboxylic acid synthetase (P5CS), were studied by real-time PCR. Maximum number of volatiles recorded at vegetative (72–58) than at mature stage (54–39). Twenty new compounds (12 in scented and 8 in both) were reported in rice. N-containing aromatic compounds were major distinguishing class separating scented from non-scented. Among quantified 26 volatiles, 14 odor-active compounds distinguished vegetative and mature stage. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for 2AP was 0.001 mg/kg of 2AP and 0.01 g of rice, respectively. 2AP accumulation in mature grains was found three times more than in leaves of scented rice. Positive correlation of 2AP with 2-pentylfuran, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and (E)-2-nonenal suggests their major role as aroma contributors. The badh2 expression was inversely and P5CS expression was positively correlated with 2AP accumulation in scented over non-scented cultivar.


HS-SPME-GCMS 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline P5CS badh2 Growth stages 



This study was supported by the Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, India, under WOS-A program grant number SR/WOS-A/LS433/2011(G). The authors are thankful of Rice Research Station, Vadgaon Maval and BSKKV, Dapoli, for providing seed material.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary 1 (DOCX 23 kb)
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Supplementary 2 (DOCX 28 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanySavitribai Phule Pune UniversityPuneIndia
  2. 2.Department of Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Vilasrao Deshmukh College of Agricultural Biotechnology, LaturVNMKVParbhaniIndia

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