Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

, Volume 175, Issue 3, pp 1588–1602 | Cite as

Multivariate Optimization and Supplementation Strategies for the Simultaneous Production of Amylases, Cellulases, Xylanases, and Proteases by Aspergillus awamori Under Solid-State Fermentation Conditions

  • Aline Machado de Castro
  • Leda R. Castilho
  • Denise Maria Guimarães Freire


The production of extracts containing a pool of enzymes for extensive biomass deconstruction can lead to significant advantages in biorefinery applications. In this work, a strain of Aspergillus awamori IOC-3914 was used for the simultaneous production of five groups of hydrolases by solid-state fermentation of babassu cake. Sequential experimental design strategies and multivariate optimization using the desirability function were first used to study temperature, moisture content, and granulometry. After that, further improvements in product yields were achieved by supplementation with other agro-industrial materials. At the end of the study, the production of enzymes was up to 3.3-fold increased, and brewer’s spent grains and babassu flour showed to be the best supplements. Maximum activities for endoamylases, exoamylases, cellulases (CMCases), xylanases, and proteases achieved were 197, 106, 20, 835, and 57 U g−1, respectively. The strain was also able to produce β-glucosidases and debranching amylases (up to 35 and 43 U g−1, respectively), indicating the potential of its enzyme pool for cellulose and starch degradation.


Amylases Proteases Cellulases Xylanases Multivariate optimization by desirability analysis 



The authors wish to thank Dr. Edmond Baruque (Tocantins Babaçu S.A.) for kindly providing babassu cake and Daniele Fernandes and Mariana Teixeira for their technical assistance. The financial support from CNPq, CAPES, FAPERJ, and ANP/PETROBRAS are also gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aline Machado de Castro
    • 1
    • 3
  • Leda R. Castilho
    • 3
  • Denise Maria Guimarães Freire
    • 2
  1. 1.Biotechnology DivisionResearch and Development Center, PETROBRASRio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Institute of ChemistryFederal University of Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil
  3. 3.Chemical Engineering Program, COPPEFederal University of Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil

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