Advertisement

Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

, Volume 173, Issue 6, pp 1495–1510 | Cite as

Utilization of Agricultural Residues of Pineapple Peels and Sugarcane Bagasse as Cost-Saving Raw Materials in Scenedesmus acutus for Lipid Accumulation and Biodiesel Production

  • Panida Rattanapoltee
  • Pakawadee Kaewkannetra
Article

Abstract

The aim of this study is to optimize the lipid accumulation in microalgae by using two agricultural residues of pineapple peels and sugarcane bagasse as low-cost organic carbon sources. Green microalgae Scenedesmus acutus was isolated and selected for cultivation. Effects of three initial sugar concentrations and the stage for adding sugar during cultivation on biomass and lipid production were investigated. The results clearly showed that two-stage cultivation is more suitable than one-stage. The maximum biomass concentration and productivity were obtained at 3.85 g/L and 160.42 mg/L/day when sugarcane bagasse was used. The highest lipid content and lipid yield was reached at 28.05 % and 0.93 g/L when pineapple peels were used, while in the case of sugarcane bagasse, 40.89 % and 1.24 g/L lipid content and yield were obtained. Lipid content was found in normal condition (autotrophic) at 17.71 % which was approximately 2.13-fold lower than when sugarcane bagasse was used (40.89 %). Biodiesel production via in situ transesterification was also investigated; the main fatty acids of palmitic acid and oleic acid were found. This work indicates that using agricultural residues as organic carbon sources could be able to increase lipid content and reduce the cost of biofuel production.

Keywords

Microalgae Scenedesmus acutus Agricultural residues Pineapple peels Sugarcane bagasse Lipid Biodiesel 

Abbreviations

S. acutus

Scenedesmus acutus

PP

Pineapple peels

SB

Sugarcane bagasse

Agro-residues

Agricultural residues

AC

Autotrophic cultivation

MC

Mixotrophic cultivation

μ

Specific growth rate

FAME

Fatty acid methyl ester

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to sincerely acknowledge the National Research University (NRU) Project, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand, for financial contribution under contract project number Ph.D 54302 for the year 2011–2014. In addition, one of the authors (P. Kaewkannetra) also would like to thanks Centre for Alternative Energy Research and Development (AERD), Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand for some matching fund (contract no. R06/56).

References

  1. 1.
    Ahmad, A. L., Mat, Y. N. H., Derek, C. J. C., & Lim, J. K. (2011). Microalgae as a sustainable energy source for biodiesel production: a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15, 584–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mata, T. M., Martins, A. A., & Caetano, N. S. (2010). Microalgae for biodiesel production and other applications. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14, 217–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Abou-Shanab, R. A. I., Hwang, J. H., Cho, Y., Min, B., & Jeon, B. H. (2011). Characterization of microalgal species isolated from fresh water bodies as a potential source for biodiesel production. Applied Energy, 88, 3300–3306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chisti, Y. (2007). Research review paper: biodiesel from microalgae. Biotechnology Advances, 25, 294–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Halim, R., Danquah, M. K., & Webley, P. A. (2012). Extraction of oil from microalgae for biodiesel production: a review. Biotechnology Advances, 30, 709–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ho, S. H., Chen, W. M., & Chang, J. S. (2010). Scenedesmus obliquus CNW-N as a potential candidate for CO2 mitigation and biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology, 101, 8725–8730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kaewkannetra, P., Enmak, P., & Chiu, T. Y. (2012). The effect of CO2 and salinity on the cultivation of Scenedesmus obliquus for biodiesel production. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, 17, 591–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Arroyo, T. H., Wei, W., Ruan, R., & Hu, B. (2011). Mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris and its potential application for the oil accumulation from non-sugar materials. Biomass and Bioenergy, 35, 2245–2253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Miao, X. L., & Wu, Q. Y. (2006). Biodiesel production from heterotrophic microalgal oil. Bioresource Technology, 97, 841–846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yan, D., Lu, Y., Chen, Y. F., & Wu, Q. (2011). Waste molasses alone displaces glucose-based medium for microalgal fermentation towards cost-saving biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology, 102, 6487–6493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lu, Y., Zhai, Y., Liu, M., & Wu, Q. (2010). Biodiesel production from algal oil using cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) as feedstock. Journal of Applied Phycology, 22, 573–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gao, C., Zhai, Y., Ding, Y., & Wu, Q. (2010). Application of sweet sorghum for biodiesel production by heterotrophic microalga Chlorella protothecoides. Applied Energy, 87, 756–761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hu, B., Min, M., Zhou, W., Li, Y., Mohr, M., Cheng, Y., Lei, H., Liu, Y., Lin, X., Chen, P., & Ruan, R. (2012). Influence of exogenous CO2 on biomass and lipid accumulation of microalgae Auxenochlorella protothecoides cultivated in concentrated municipal wastewater. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 166, 1661–1673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    FAO, (2010). Statistical Yearbook. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Available from: www.fao.org. Accessed November 26, 2013.
  15. 15.
    Ketnawa, S., Chaiwut, P., & Rawdkuen, S. (2012). Pineapple wastes: a potential source for bromelain extraction. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 90, 385–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Namsree, P., Suvajittanont, W., Puttanlek, C., Uttapap, D., & Rungsardthong, V. (2012). Anaerobic digestion of pineapple pulp and peel in a plug-flow reactor. Journal of Environmental Management, 110, 40–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hu, X., Hu, K., Zeng, L., Zhao, M., & Huang, H. (2010). Hydrogels prepared from pineapple peel cellulose using ionic liquid and their characterization and primary sodium salicylate release study. Carbohydrate Polymers, 82, 62–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    FAO, (2012). Impact of Thai sugar policy on the world sugar economy. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Available from: www.fao.org. Accessed November 26, 2013.
  19. 19.
    Cardona, C. A., Quintero, J. A., & Paz, I. C. (2010). Production of bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse: status and perspectives. Bioresource Technology, 101, 4754–4766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Inyang, M., Gao, B., Pullammanappallil, P., Ding, W., & Zimmerman, A. R. (2010). Biochar from anaerobically digested sugarcane bagasse. Bioresource Technology, 101, 8868–8872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gamez, S., Gonzalez-Cabriales, J. J., Ramirez, J. A., Garrote, G., & Vazquez, M. (2006). Study of the hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse using phosphoric acid. Journal of Food Engineering, 74, 78–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chandel, A. K., Kapoor, R., Singh, A., & Kuhad, R. C. (2007). Detoxification of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate improves ethanol production by Candida shehatae NCIM 3501. Bioresource Technology, 98, 1947–1950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Manikkandan, T. R., Dhanasekar, R., & Thirumavalavan, K. (2009). Microbial production of hydrogen from sugarcane bagasse using Bacillus Sp. International Journal of ChemTech Research, 1, 344–348.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lohrey, C., & Kochergin, V. (2012). Biodiesel production from microalgae: co-location with sugar mills. Bioresource Technology, 108, 76–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Barsanti, L., & Gualtieri, P. (2006). Algae: anatomy, biochemistry and biotechnology. USA.: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhou, W., Li, Y., Min, M., Hu, B., Chen, P., & Ruan, R. (2011). Local bioprospecting for high-lipid producing microalgal strains to be grown on concentrated municipal wastewater for biofuel production. Bioresource Technology, 102, 6909–6919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Balasubramanian, S., Allen, J. D., Kanitkar, A., & Boldor, D. (2011). Oil extraction from Scenedesmus obliquus using a continuous microwave system—design, optimization, and quality characterization. Bioresource Technology, 102, 3396–3403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ho, S., Chen, H. C. Y., & Chang, J. S. (2012). Effect of light intensity and nitrogen starvation on CO2 fixation and lipid/carbohydrate production of an indigenous microalga Scenedesmus obliquus CNW-N. Bioresource Technology, 113, 224–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wang, Y., Chen, T., & Qin, S. (2012). Heterotrophic cultivation of Chlorella kessleri for fatty acids production by carbon and nitrogen supplements. Biomass and Bioenergy, 47, 402–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Da Silva, T. L., Reis, A., Medeiros, R., Oliveira, A. C., & Gouveia, L. (2009). Oil production towards biofuel from autotrophic microalgae semicontinuous cultivations monitorized by flow cytometry. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 159, 568–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zhang, H., Wang, W., Li, Y., Yang, W., & Shen, G. (2011). Mixotrophic cultivation of Botryococcus braunii. Biomass and Bioenergy, 35, 1710–1715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Doria, E., Longoni, P., Scibilia, L., Iazzi, N., Cella, R., & Nielsen, E. (2012). Isolation and characterization of a Scenedesmus acutus strain to be used for bioremediation of urban wastewater. Journal of Applied Phycology, 24, 375–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Torricelli, E., Gessica, G., Pawlik-Skowronska, B., Di Toppi, L. S., & Corradi, M. G. (2004). Cadmium tolerance, cysteine and thiol peptide levels in wild type and chromium-tolerant strains of Scenedesmus acutus (Chlorophyceae). Aquatic Toxicology, 68, 315–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sacristan de Alva, M., Luna-Pabello, V. M., Cadena, E., & Ortiz, E. (2013). Green microalga Scenedesmus acutus grown on municipal wastewater to couple nutrient removal with lipid accumulation for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology, 146, 744–748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Knothe, G. (2008). Designer biodiesel: optimizing fatty ester composition to improve fuel properties. Energy and Fuels, 22, 1358–1364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate SchoolKhon Kaen UniversityKhon KaenThailand
  2. 2.Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of TechnologyKhon Kaen UniversityKhon KaenThailand
  3. 3.Centre for Alternative Energy Research and Development (AERD), Faculty of EngineeringKhon Kaen UniversityKhon KaenThailand

Personalised recommendations