Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

, Volume 173, Issue 4, pp 989–1002 | Cite as

The Application of the Starfish Hatching Enzyme for the Improvement of Scar and Keloid Based on the Fibroblast-Populated Collagen Lattice

  • Zhi Jiang Li
  • Sang Moo Kim


Various bioactivities of the starfish hatching enzyme (HE) including collagen gel contraction, MMPs activity, hydroxyproline release, and gene regulation based on the fibroblast-populated collagen lattice (FPCL) in three-dimensional medium were investigated for the improvement of scar and keloid. The starfish HE significantly inhibited the collagen gel contraction over 2 days of culture. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were also identified by gelatin zymography and RT-PCR products with both HE and collagenase treatments, which resulted in the high amount of hydroxyproline release. The HE treatment on the FPCL significantly inhibited the fibroblast proliferation at 3 days of culture. The LPS-induced NO level and iNOS mRNA expression at low concentrations of HE presented a certain ability to inflammatory response. The COX-2 mRNA from the FPCL indicated no significant inflammation-mediated activity at 5 μg/mL of HE, whereas the cytokines of TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly higher than those of the control. Hence, the starfish hatching enzyme can regulate the fibroblast-populated collagen gel conditions by the contraction, MMP production, inflammatory gene expression, etc. Therefore, the starfish HE could be a potential cosmeceutical to heal the scar and keloid tissue.


Hatching enzyme Collagen gel contraction MMP Gene regulation 



Hatching enzyme


Extracellular matrix


Matrix metalloprotease


Tissue inhibitors metalloproteases


Nitric oxide


Fibroblast-populated collagen lattice


Inducible nitric oxide synthase


Tumor necrosis factor-alpha


Interleukin-1 beta


Transfer growth factor



This research was supported by the Korea Sea Grant Program (GangWon Sea Grant) funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries in Korea.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food and Engineering, College of Food ScienceHeilongjiang Bayi Agricultural UniversityDaqingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Marine Food Science and TechnologyGangneung-Wonju National UniversityGangneungRepublic of Korea

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