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Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

, Volume 171, Issue 4, pp 883–899 | Cite as

Prevalence of Genetically Modified Rice, Maize, and Soy in Saudi Food Products

  • Rafaat M. Elsanhoty
  • A. I. Al-Turki
  • Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan
Article

Abstract

Qualitative and quantitative DNA-based methods were applied to detect genetically modified foods in samples from markets in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Two hundred samples were collected from Al-Qassim, Riyadh, and Mahdina in 2009 and 2010. GMOScreen 35S and NOS test kits for the detection of genetically modified organism varieties in samples were used. The positive results obtained from GMOScreen 35S and NOS were identified using specific primer pairs. The results indicated that all rice samples gave negative results for the presence of 35S and NOS terminator. About 26 % of samples containing soybean were positive for 35S and NOS terminator and 44 % of samples containing maize were positive for the presence of 35S and/or NOS terminator. The results showed that 20.4 % of samples was positive for maize line Bt176, 8.8 % was positive for maize line Bt11, 8.8 % was positive for maize line T25, 5.9 % was positive for maize line MON 810, and 5.9 % was positive for StarLink maize. Twelve samples were shown to contain <3 % of genetically modified (GM) soy and 6 samples >10 % of GM soy. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >5 % of GM maize MON 810. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >1 % of StarLink maize. Establishing strong regulations and certified laboratories to monitor GM foods or crops in Saudi market is recommended.

Keywords

Genetically modified foods GMO DNA extraction Real-time PCR Saudi market 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Deanship of Scientific Research, Al-Qassim University, Qassim, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (contract number SR-D-008-45).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rafaat M. Elsanhoty
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. I. Al-Turki
    • 3
  • Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary MedicineAl-Qassim UniversityQassimKingdom of Saudi Arabia
  2. 2.Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Branch of Food and Dairy BiotechnologyMenoufia UniversityShibin El KomEgypt
  3. 3.Department of Plant Production and Protection, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary MedicineAl-Qassim UniversityQassimKingdom of Saudi Arabia
  4. 4.Agricultural Biochemistry Department, Faculty of AgricultureZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt
  5. 5.Institute of Scientific Research and Revival of Islamic HeritageUmm Al-Qura UniversityMakkahKingdom of Saudi Arabia

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