Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

, Volume 168, Issue 4, pp 834–850 | Cite as

Proteomic Analysis for Low and High Nitrogen-Responsive Proteins in the Leaves of Rice Genotypes Grown at Three Nitrogen Levels

  • Khalid Rehman Hakeem
  • Ruby Chandna
  • Altaf Ahmad
  • Mohd. Irfan Qureshi
  • Muhammad Iqbal


Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient for plants. Increase in crop production is associated with increase in N fertilizers. Excessive use of N fertilizers and the low nitrogen utilization efficiency by crop plants is a major cause for environmental damage. Therefore, to reduce the N-fertilizer pollution, there is an urgent need to improve nitrogen use efficiency. Identification and/or development of genotypes which can grow and yield well at low nitrogen levels may provide a solution. Understanding the molecular mechanism of differential nitrogen use efficiency of the genotypes may provide some clues. Keeping the above facts in mind, in this study we have identified the high N-responsive and low N-responsive contrasting rice genotypes, out of 20 genotypes that were grown at low (1 mM), moderate (10 mM), and high (25 mM) levels of N (KNO3). Proteome analysis of leaves revealed that the proteins involved in the energy production/regulation and metabolism in plant leaf tissues are differentially expressed under N treatments. Moreover, some disease-resistant and stress-induced proteins were found to be overexpressed at high levels of N. The present study could be useful in identifying proteins responding to different levels of nitrogen fertilization, which may open new avenues for a better understanding of N use efficiency, and for developing new strategies to enhance N efficiency in cereal crops.


2D Electrophoresis Mass spectrometry N-use efficiency Proteomics Rice genotypes 


Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Botany, Molecular Ecology Laboratory, Faculty of ScienceHamdard UniversityNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Biotechnology, Proteomics & Bioinformatics LaboratoryJamia Millia IslamiaNew DelhiIndia

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