Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

, Volume 162, Issue 1, pp 127–133 | Cite as

The Antifungal Activity of Sarcococca saligna Ethanol Extract and its Combination Effect with Fluconazole against Different Resistant Aspergillus Species

  • Kamyar Mollazadeh Moghaddam
  • Mohammad ArfanEmail author
  • Jamal Rafique
  • Sassan Rezaee
  • Parisa Jafari Fesharaki
  • Ahmad Reza Gohari
  • Ahmad Reza ShahverdiEmail author


Microbial resistance is a major drawback in chemotherapy of microbial or fungal infection disease. In this study, the antifungal activity of ethanol extract of a selected plant (Sarcococca saligna) has been investigated against clinical isolates of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus treus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Also, the enhancement of the antifungal activity of fluconazole by this extract was further evaluated against mentioned test strains. Conventional disk diffusion method was used to assay the antifungal activity of S. saligna ethanol extract in the absence and presence of fluconazole. The highest antifungal activity was observed against A. treus. The ethanol extract of S. saligna enhanced the antifungal activity of fluconazole against A. niger and A. treus and A. flavus. At the highest tested contents (4 mg/disk), 1.15-, 0.64-, and 2.47-fold increases in inhibition zone surface area were observed for A. niger, A. treus, and A. flavus, respectively. However, no enhancing effect was observed for this plant extract against Aspergillus fumigates at tested contents (0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 mg/disk). In a separate experiment, the general cytotoxicity of the ethanol extract of S. saligna was examined with brine shrimp assay. This plant extract showed low cytotoxicity against Artemia salina (LC50 = 186 µg/ml).


Sarcococca saligna Antifungal activity Combination effect Fluconazole Aspergillus spp. 



The biological experiments were supported by Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran). Also, collection of plant and extraction procedures was supported by University of Peshawar and the Higher Education Commission, Pakistan, under its indigenous Ph.D. scheme.


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Copyright information

© Humana Press 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kamyar Mollazadeh Moghaddam
    • 1
  • Mohammad Arfan
    • 2
    Email author
  • Jamal Rafique
    • 2
  • Sassan Rezaee
    • 3
  • Parisa Jafari Fesharaki
    • 4
  • Ahmad Reza Gohari
    • 5
  • Ahmad Reza Shahverdi
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Student Scientific Research CenterTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Institute of Chemical SciencesUniversity of PeshawarPeshawarPakistan
  3. 3.Department of Medical Mycology & Parasitology, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Center, Faculty of PharmacyTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  5. 5.Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of PharmacyTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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