Banana as Adjunct in Beer Production: Applicability and Performance of Fermentative Parameters

  • Giovani B. M. Carvalho
  • Daniel P. Silva
  • Camila V. Bento
  • António A. Vicente
  • José A. Teixeira
  • Maria das Graças A. Felipe
  • João B. Almeida e Silva


Traditionally, the raw materials for beer production are barley, hops, water, and yeast, but most brewers use also different adjuncts. During the alcoholic fermentation, the contribution of aroma compounds from other ingredients to the final beer flavor depends on the wort composition, on the yeast strain, and mainly on the process conditions. In this context, banana can also be a raw material favorable to alcoholic fermentation being rich in carbohydrates and minerals and providing low acidity. In this work, the objective was to evaluate the performance of wort adjusted with banana juice in different concentrations. For this, static fermentations were conducted at 15 °C at pilot scale (140 L of medium). The addition of banana that changed the concentration of all-malt wort from 10 °P to 12 and 15 °P were evaluated (°P is the weight of the extract or the sugar equivalent in 100 g solution, at 20 °C). The results showed an increase in ethanol production, with approximately 0.4 g/g ethanol yield and 0.6 g/L h volumetric productivity after 84 h of processing when concentrated wort was used. Thus, it was concluded that banana can be used as an adjunct in brewing methods, helping in the development of new products as well as in obtaining concentrated worts.


Beer Raw materials Adjunct Banana Brewing Fermentation 



The authors acknowledge the financial support from Fapesp (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo/Brasil), CAPES (Coordenação para Aperfeiçoamento do Ensino Superior/Brasil), GRICES (Gabinete de Relações Internacionais da Ciência e do Ensino Superior/Portugal), and FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia/Portugal), as well as the assistance from Malteria do Vale, Wallerstein Industrial & Commercial, Johnson-Diversey, Novozymes, and EMATER-MG for supplying brewing materials and banana fruits.


  1. 1.
    Linko, M., Haikara, A., Ritala, A., & Penttilä, M. (1998). Journal of Biotechnology, 65, 85–98. doi: 10.1016/S0168-1656(98)00135-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bamforth, C. W. (2000). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 80, 1371–1378. doi: 10.1002/1097-0010(200007)80:9<1371::AID-JSFA654>3.0.CO;2-K.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Willaert, R., & Nedovic, V. A. (2006). Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology (Oxford, Oxfordshire), 81, 1353–1367. doi: 10.1002/jctb.1582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brányik, T., Silva, D. P., Vicente, A. A., Lehnert, R., Almeida e Silva, J. B., Dostálek, P., et al. (2006). Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, 33, 1010–1018. doi: 10.1007/s10295-006-0151-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rivera, A., González, J. S., Carrillo, R., & Martínez, J. M. (2009). Journal of Cleaner Production, 17(2), 137–142. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2008.03.009.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Almeida, R. B., Almeida e Silva, J. B., Lima, U. A., Silva, D. P., & Assis, A. N. (2001). Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 18(4), 459–465. doi: 10.1590/S0104-66322001000400010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Almeida e Silva, J. B., Lima, U. A., Silva, D. P., Almeida, R. B., & Assis, A. N. (2004). Cerevisia, 29(3), 147–154.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dragone, G., Silva, D. P., & Almeida e Silva, J. B. (2004). Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie, 37, 797–802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Silva, D. P., Brányik, T., Dragone, G., Vicente, A. A., Teixeira, J. A., & Almeida e Silva, J. B. (2008). Chemical Papers, 62(1), 34–41. doi: 10.2478/s11696-007-0076-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Casey, G., Magnus, C. A., & Ingledew, W. M. (1984). Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 48, 639–646.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    McCaig, R., McKee, J., Pfisterer, E. A., Hysert, D. W., Munoz, E., & Ingledew, W. M. (1992). Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists, 50, 18–26.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Russel, I., & Stewart, G. G. (1995). Brewing. In: H. J. Rehm, G. Reed (eds.), Biotechnology. New York: VCH, v.9, cap. 11.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stewart, G. G., Bothwick, R., Bryce, J., Cooper, D., Cunningham, S., Hart, C., et al. (1997). MBAA Technical Quarterly, 34, 264–270.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    van Iersel, M. F. M., van Dieren, B., Rombouts, F. M., & Abee, T. (1999). Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 24, 407–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Odibo, F. J. C., Nwankwo, L. N., & Agu, R. C. (2002). Process Biochemistry, 37, 851–855. doi: 10.1016/S0032-9592(01)00286-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Agu, R. C. (2006). Technical Quarterly—Master Brewers Association of the Americas, 43, 277–280.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Harish, S., Kavino, M., Kumar, N., Saravanakumar, D., Soorianathasundaram, K., & Samiyappan, R. (2008). Applied Soil Ecology, 39, 187–200. doi: 10.1016/j.apsoil.2007.12.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhang, P., Whistler, R. L., BeMiller, J. N., & Hamaker, B. R. (2005). Carbohydrate Polymers, 59, 443–458. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2004.10.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.(2008) FAOSTAT statistics database (last updated 11 May 2008).
  20. 20.
    Viviani, L., & Leal, P. M. (2007). Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 29(3), 465–470. doi: 10.1590/S0100-29452007000300012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Loeseck, H. W. (1950). Chemical changes during ripening. Bananas—chemistry, physiology and technology (vol. 4). New York: Interscience.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    ASBC, American Society of Brewing Chemists (1996). Methods of Analysis of American Society of Brewing Chemists. ASBC. 8th. ed. Saint Paul Minnesota. USA.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Le Duy, A., & Zajic, E. J. (1973). Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 15, 805–810. doi: 10.1002/bit.260150412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Guido, L. F., Rodrigues, P. G., Rodrigues, J. A., Goncalves, C. R., & Barros, A. A. (2004). Food Chemistry, 87, 187–193. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2003.10.033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Willaert, R. (1991). Cerevisia, 26, 43–49.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Navarro, S., Pérez, G., Navarro, G., Mena, L., & Vela, N. (2007). Food Chemistry, 105, 1495–1503. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.05.035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Verstrepen, K. J., Derdelinckx, G., Dufour, J. P., Winderickx, J., Thevelein, J. M., Pretorius, I. S., et al. (2003). Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 96(2), 110–118.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Engan, S. (1972). Wort composition and beer flavour. II: The influence of different carbohydrates on the formation of some flavour components during fermentation. Journal of The Institute of Brewing. Institute of Brewing (Great Britain), 78, 169–173.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Younis, 0. S., & Stewart, G. G. (1998). Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 104, 255–264.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Younis, 0. S., & Stewart, G. G. (1999). Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists, 57, 39–45.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giovani B. M. Carvalho
    • 1
  • Daniel P. Silva
    • 2
  • Camila V. Bento
    • 1
  • António A. Vicente
    • 2
  • José A. Teixeira
    • 2
  • Maria das Graças A. Felipe
    • 1
  • João B. Almeida e Silva
    • 1
  1. 1.Biotechnology Department, Engineering School of LorenaUniversity of São PauloLorenaBrazil
  2. 2.Centre of Biological Engineering, IBB—Institute for Biotechnology and BioengineeringUniversity of MinhoBragaPortugal

Personalised recommendations