Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

, Volume 157, Issue 2, pp 263–277 | Cite as

Enzymatic Polymerization of Natural Anacardic Acid and Antibiofouling Effects of Polyanacardic Acid Coatings

  • Rahul Chelikani
  • Yong Hwan Kim
  • Do-Young Yoon
  • Dong-Shik KimEmail author


Anacardic acid, separated from cashew nut shell liquid, is well known for its strong antibiotic and antioxidant activities. Recent findings indicate that phenolic compounds from plant sources have an effect on Gram-negative bacteria biofilm formation. In this work, a polyphenolic coating was prepared from anacardic acid using enzymatic synthesis and tested for its effects on biofilm formation of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Natural anacardic acid was enzymatically polymerized using soybean peroxidase. Hydrogen peroxide and phenothiazine-10-propionic acid were used as an oxidizing agent and redox mediator, respectively. Nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses showed the formation of oxyphenylene and phenylene units through the phenol rings. No linkage through the alkyl chain was observed, which proved a high chemo-selectivity of the enzyme. Aqueous solvents turned out to play an important role in the polymer production yield and molecular weight. With 2-propanol, the highest production yield (61%) of polymer (molecular weight = 3,900) was observed, and with methanol, higher-molecular-weight polymers (5,000) were produced with lower production yields (43%). The resulting polyanacardic acid was cross-linked on a solid surface to form a permanent natural polymer coating. The FTIR analysis indicates that the cross-linking between the polymers took place through the unsaturated alkyl side chains. The polyanacardic acid coating was then tested for its antibiofouling effect against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and compared with the antibiofouling effects of polycardanol coatings reported in the literature. The polyanacardic acid coating showed more reduction in biofilm formation on its surface than polycardanol coatings in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, while in the case of Gram-negative bacteria, it showed a similar reduction in biofilm formation as polycardanol.


Enzymatic polymerization Anacardic acid CNSL Antibiofouling Soybean peroxidase Redox mediator 



The present research has been conducted by the funding support from National Science Foundation (CTS-0626022).


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Copyright information

© Humana Press 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rahul Chelikani
    • 1
  • Yong Hwan Kim
    • 2
  • Do-Young Yoon
    • 2
  • Dong-Shik Kim
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of ToledoToledoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringKwangwoon UniversitySeoulSouth Korea

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